Water carrying concrete core
Going into details with thermally activated concrete slabs, there are several thermo active slab systems that could be applied all with the same concept but the difference is according to the position of the pipes. For example capillary tube systems were the pipes are fixed under the concrete slab which is not that much efficient as it doesn’t take advantage of the thermal mass capacity of concrete. Second under floor temperature control in which the pipes are embedded under the floor which is also not that much efficient as cooled air moves down ward not up wards so it will not be suitable for cooling but for heating. Concrete core temperature control in which ...view middle of the document...
Generally heat flows from the water pipes in the direction of the slab surface in case of heating and opposite in case of cooling.
In case of cooling or heating the building using concrete core temperature control solely, so the efficiency is narrowed to the temperature difference between the slab and the room volume so certain necessities are required. First sources of thermal energy should be reduced in the building in summer. Second the façade are to be thermally insulated to prevent the inflow of solar energy in addition to that windows with sun protection and reduced g-value is to be applied. The concrete slab must be able to store a large amount of heat or cold thus high thermal conductive materials with high thermal storage capacity should be used which is mainly the characteristics of concrete. It is preferable to expose the slab and avoid ceiling claddings that reduces heat transfer.
According to the heating or cooling demand, the building is divided into sectors in order to be able to control the temperatures of different zones. Heat exchangers are distributed for each zone with different sizes according to the zone size and a radiator for each room is supplied with different sizes according to the room sizes. The minimum distance between tubes that could be reached is 10 centimeters due to production reasons, so in special cases in summer due to this limitation factor, the required room temperature is not achieved so additional measures should be taken into consideration in the planning phase.
Heat and cold sources
As concrete core temperature control is mainly depending on the small temperature difference between heat or cool source and the room temperature thus ecological primary energy sources with low temperature level could be used. There are three energy sources that could be benefited from as ground temperature, cool night air and ground water. First, from ground, borehole heat exchangers or energy piles could be used. A borehole consists of pile of pipes immersed into the ground into a 50 to 100 meters hole. Water is pumped into the pipes to absorb heat from or releases heat to the ground. The boreholes could be used in winter as a source of...