Water Provisions in Egypt
One of Egypt’s greatest challenges today is lack of sufficient basic infrastructure such as water and sewage facilities. Two of the water sources in Egypt are the ground water in Nile valley and the River Nile which is the major source of fresh water in Egypt. The annual share of Egypt’s utilized water amounts to a fixed 55.5 billion. Both sources provide for the people water, but due to the increase in population, the demand is now higher. Apart from being scarce, the limitations affecting these sources mainly relate to location, quality, quantity as well as cost of development (Ray, 2009).
a. Background Problem in this region
During the last twenty years, the Government of Egypt has massively invested in attempt to provide water and sewage facilities to both rural and urban areas in Egypt. The problem in this region accrues from the fact that Egypt is located in the Middle East which is a semi-arid area (Weight, 2009, Appendix 4).This fact is worsened by its ever increasing population of about 200 million people, raising the demand for water to even greater levels. Being located in such an area, Egypt faces limited rainfall, lack of fresh water and generally acute water scarcity that cannot support its large population. Egypt’s water mainly comes from River Nile which is evidently very vulnerable to climate change.
The situation in Egypt is evident because the country is specifically vulnerable to climatic changes that affect its dependence on River Nile as its primary water source. Approximately 97 per cent of Egypt is a desert, and only 5 percent of the land is occupied by people, while less than 4 per cent is fit for agriculture (Tyler,2009).The river Nile provides water for a slim percentage of the Egyptian territory, leaving the rest of the country to face extreme scarcity of water.
c. Presentation of Options
The options that Egypt could adopt in ensuring that the existing water problem is remedied are quit a number. Firstly, the extraction of ground water which can be supplied to cities. Secondly, if Egypt can come up with ways of desalinating large quantities of water, then they could utilize the salty sea water and make it fit for human use. Other options include building more dams, transferring water from one place to another and using water in a more sustainable way or water re-use by recycling it.
The key requirement is for all these options to be well managed by proper authorities with expertise and resources. Otherwise, poor governance will be an obstacle to remedy this problem.
II. Comparison of options
a. Evaluating the given Options
Basing on the given options, it is vital that all the options be analyzed and evaluated so as to come up with the best possible solution in solving the water problem in Egypt. Egypt can improve its water efficiency so as to decrease the burden of having waste water plants, building costly dams as well as having...