Water Engineering Essay

2954 words - 12 pages

1.0 IntroductionThis proposal will deliver a substantial number of new homes on an existing rural village with 20 homes. The proposal will embrace sustainability; focus on water supply, waste water treatment and impact on the hydrological environment for the need of water supply and demand. The existing village has got only 20 houses, therefore the new houses will have a big impact on the existing water supply and the hydrological system. The current water supply and treatments will not cope with the new development; therefore new designs will be necessary.2.0Water SupplyThroughout the world people need safe and affordable drinking water, together with an environmentally sustainable means of disposing of wastewater. Water supply is the process of self-provision or provision by third parties of water of various qualities to different users. These users can be:Industrial usesports and leisure'sagricultural useThe people for, hygienic, cooking, etcReasonable amount of water and adequate water quality are important for public health and hygiene. Waterborne diseases are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. For example, an estimated 900 million people suffer (and approximately 2 million die) from water-related diarrhea illnesses each year. At least 17 percent of the total burden of human diseases in many developing countries can be attributing to diarrhea and infestations by intestinal worms. The most common waterborne or water washed diseases are diarrhea, typhoid and cholera. Another example is trachoma, an infectious disease of the eye, which results in many cases of blindness in developing countries, which is associated with poor water supply, poor sanitation and failure to adequately process human excrement.The World Health Organization has defined around 20 liter per capita per day as basic access, which implies high health concerns, and 100 liter per capita per day as optimal access, associated with low health concerns.In 2004 about 3.5 billion people worldwide (54% of the global population) had access to piped water supply through house connections. Another 1.3 billion (20%) had access to safe water through other means than house connections, including standpipes, "water kiosks", protected springs and protected wells. Finally, more than 1 billion people (16%) did not have access to safe water, meaning that they have to drink from unprotected wells or springs, canals, lakes or rivers to fetch water.Continuity of water supply is very important, but is a severe problem in many countries, where sometimes water is only provided for a few hours every day or a few days a week. It is estimated that about half of the population of developing countries receives water on an intermittent basis.2.1 Water Quality and QuantityThe availability of a water supply is essential for both quantity and quality to humans.The quantity of water supplied to the rural village will differ when the new development takes place. The...

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