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Water Management In Jordan Essay

1357 words - 5 pages

Water shortage is a global problem and the consequences of water deficit can be a future crisis. According to Hasan Ali (2002, 1-3) the world large water deficient region is the Middle East. Jordan is one of the water-scarce countries in this area, Jordan is similarly in the top of ten water-deficient countries. The reasons of this problem are the features of nature such as semi-arid climate, few water sources and low precipitation. Because of that, the country has the lowest per head basis of water in the world. The other reasons are social effects namely rising population, resulting from a high degree of urbanization, gain of engineering systems and economic development (Akawwic et al. 2009, 197-198). The aim of this essay is to suggest the most effective solutions to avoid the future crisis in Jordan. Four solutions will be analysed in this essay: firstly, adoption of irrigation systems; secondly, water harvesting; thirdly, desalination; fourthly, water management. Initially, the largest customer of water resources is the agriculture sector. It is a really danger for Jordan because the statistics show that water consumption of agriculture is about 80 % of all water. Therefore, firstly, the suitable solution is to reduce water consumption of agriculture (Akawwic et al 2010, 201). It could be realized with using effective irrigation methods such as drip or micro irrigation (ibid.,202). The irrigation methods, in particular, “furrow and basin irrigation”, which were often used in past, required large quantities of water. Therefore, these approaches were substituted by micro irrigation, in order to economize water resources (Abbasi et al 2010, 337). Generally, micro irrigation is the favourable and effective method, but there is inevitable drawback, since it is not easily adaptable. Firstly, the application and the enhancement of micro irrigation system require financial expenditure. In addition, there are difficulties with installation of system which has very simple design and is unreliable for a filtration from contamination (Hassan ,Molle, Venot 2008, 431). In spite of these disadvantages, this method is very suitable especially for countries with semi-arid climate because the micro irrigation planning can be managed precisely to meet crop demands. For instance, the production of crops since 1970s to the 1990s was high-performance because fields were irrigated by the micro irrigation in Jordan was high-performance (ibid. 432). This means that in the areas, where systems of micro irrigation are used water resources are distributed rationally. Due to that yields are more productive. One of the favourable measures to solve water shortage problem is water harvesting (Akawwic et al. 2009, 202 ). This method is a technological system where are used ordinary facilities such as cisterns, reservoirs and if possible more powerful technical solutions namely “underground check dams” to gather and conserve rainwater. Nowadays Jordanians use the system of...

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