Water – is the most constant and is an indispensable component of our daily life. No household operation could not be carried out without water.
Water can be used in many ways: for domestic purposes, for industrial purposes, in agriculture, and for power plants and many more.
In domestic purposes water is consumed for drinking, cooking , washing, bathing , flushing sewage into drains and irrigation of gardens and streets. It is consumed that about 8 % of the water is used for domestic purposes by mankind.
Over 85% of the water used for industrial purposes, is consumed in cooling. The rest is consumed in washing, scrubbing , and for hydraulic solvent . Approximately half a million liters of water is used to produce each car ; this includes the amount of irreversibly expended as water and water reuse. In industrial applications consumes about 22 % of all water used in the world .
Agriculture accounts for 70% of water consumption worldwide. This water is used for irrigation. For one ton of cotton growing need 11,000 million liters of water . For growing ripe pumpkin requires 150 liters of water.
Water is used for hydropower and thermal power plants , steam generation , rotating turbine and for cooling purposes . Although power consumes huge amounts of water , it is used almost without losses , in a closed loop . It is estimated that in the middle of the twenty -first century, water consumption worldwide will exceed its natural flow . To solve this problem , different ways of getting fresh water are developed.
Sources of water pollution can be physical, biological , chemical, thermal and radiological contaminants.
• Physical pollution - the increase of insoluble impurities in water (sand, clay, silt ) by run-off of rainwater from the fields of soil , mining dust , wind-blown , etc.
• Chemical pollution - is getting into the water of various chemicals , waste from different industries : petrochemical , pulp and paper , as well as municipal sewage , waste and livestock farms , etc.
• Biological pollution - is getting into the waters with sewage with different pathogens ( bacteria, viruses ) , fungal spores , eggs , worms , etc. The main sources of biological contaminants are municipal wastewater enterprises sugar refineries, meat and wood industry and etc. particularly dangerous are water pollution in crowded places ( resort areas coasts of seas and rivers ) .
• Thermal pollution constitutes heated water effluents from power plants and nuclear power plants. An example is the radioactive contamination of the Chernobyl accident .
Methods of treatment and prevention of water pollution
• Denitrification - Denitrification natural process that can be used to prevent leaching of nitrates in the soil , which in turn stops any groundwater pollution with nutrients.
• Septic Tank - Septic tanks are used to treat wastewater in a place where it is located. They are usually used to treat wastewater from a separate building.
• Ozone wastewater treatment - It is...