Water Resource Conservation In Headwater Area Funded By A City: The A Century Long Case Study Of Yokohama Waterworks Bureau Forest And Doshi Vill

1275 words - 6 pages

After implementing the FMP, planting and cutting were greatly dropped. Figure 5 shows cutting volume. Harvesting fuelwood in the coppice forest already stopped in 1960’s. Coppice forest is mainly composed of some kinds of oaks, and is regenerated with fresh shoots from the stumps of trees after harvesting fuelwood is done. And both coniferous and broad leafed timber declined around 1990. Planting area followed almost the same trends. After 1995 statistics of harvest volume are not available. The YWB officially asserts that it has made no profits on sales of timber since 1994.

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Not only the YWB’s FMP but also the economic ...view middle of the document...

In Japan, forest owners often sell their stumpages while stumpages stand in the forest. Then loggers buy the stumpages and log stumpages to produce logs or timbers. Because the YWB Forest formerly belonged to the Yamanashi prefectural forest, there was a stumpage sale subsidy system based on the Yamanashi prefecture Imperial and Prefectural Asset Management Regulations. Yamanashi prefecture established these regulations in 1912, and then Yokohama city took over the regulations in 1916. The regulations had been effective until 1996. Under that system, in conjunction with a stumpage sale the village received 2.5% of the sale price in the case of plantation forest, 12.5% in the case of naturally-regenerated conifers, and 10.0% in the case of naturally-regenerated broadleaf trees (YWB, 1996). This system was a vestige of the time when the villagers used the headwater forest as a forest common. At the time when the headwater forest was acquired by Yokohama, nearly all of the forest type was natural forest, and much of the plantation was planted by Yokohama city. That is why the stumpage sale subsidy for natural forest was higher than the counterpart for plantation. The system was set up so that the larger the amount of a stumpage sale was, particularly if it was natural forest, the greater the economic gain was for the village. Doshi village was granted this stumpage sale subsidy in the range from 0 yen to 1.9 million yen from 1975 through 1987 . The average amount of the subsidy was 896 thousand yen per year in that period.
Yet the relationship between the YWB Forest and the village under this system became difficult to continue owing to factors such as rising public opinion about watershed conservation, which was sparked by controversy over golf course construction, and owing to worsening timber market conditions. The shift in the management plan was not realized unless Yokohama city and Doshi village could establish a new relationship where both of them were not dependent on logging the YWB Forest. In addition, in controversy over golf course construction, Yokohama city proposed to Doshi village four kinds of “golf course alternatives”. They are (a) burden of expense for tax revenue as for golf course utilization tax, (b) cooperation for local development, (c) support for water-supply and sewerage system in the village, and (d) public relations of Doshi to Yokohama citizens (Kanagawa local page of Asahi Newspaper on November 4th, 1990). The public relation includes publicity of burochures or websites of Doshi village for Yokohama citizens, complimentary pass for Yokohama citizens which they could use in Doshi, recommendation of buying a second home in Doshi, and so on.
The stumpage sale subsidy has been changed to the following four kinds, which do not depend on logging the forest. (1) Establishment and administration of the “Doshi...

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