There are various treatments that can be used for hyperthyroidism. Generally, antithyroid medication or radioactive iodine are the ones chosen, but in some cases surgery may be needed. Physicians must evaluate the cause for the hyperthyroidism, age of the patient, level of thyroid hormones in the system, and other medical conditions before making a decision on the appropriate treatment plan (Hyperthyroidism, 2011).
Radioactive iodine is the treatment that provides the best opportunity for permanently curing hyperthyroidism. Many times it is chosen after a patient has tried antithryoid medication or in a situation where a patient experiences ...view middle of the document...
This medication is used in the treatment of an overactive thyroid, as in Grave’s disease. Grave’s disease is an autoimmune disease where a person’s antibodies attach to the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor sites; therefore, causing a reaction to occur within the thyroid to overproduce the thyroid hormone. Also thyroxine (T4) and triodothyronine (T3) are produced when iodine and thyroglobulin combine with peroxidase. Propylthiouracil inhibits the normal interaction between iodine and thyroglobulin, which in turn causes a decreased amount of T4 and T3 to be formed. Another way it works is by interfering with the conversion of T4 to T3 (Propylthiouracil, 2013).
The mechanism of action of propylthiouracil is that the drug binds to thyroid peroxidase and inhibits the conversion of iodide to iodine. Generally, thyroid peroxidase converts iodide to iodine and incorporates the iodide molecule to either three or five positions on the phenol rings of the tyrosines that are found on thyroglobulin. Thyroglobulin breaks down to produce T4 and T3 which are the main hormones produced by the thyroid; therefore propylthiouracil inhibits the production of new thyroid hormones (Propylthiouracil, 2013).
Methimazole is a thioureylene antithyroid agent that inhibits the formation of thyroid hormones by interfering with the incorporation of iodine into tyrosyle residues of thyroglobulin. There is an interference with the oxidation of iodide ion and iodotyrosyl groups through an inhibiting of the peroxidase enzyme (Methimazole, 2013). Methimazole is generally used for the treatment of hyperthyroidism, goiters, Grave’s disease, and psoriasis. It is many times also given to a patient prior to surgery for partial thyroid removal or prior to radioactive iodine therapy for prevention of a thyroid storm (Methimazole, 2013).
The mechanism of action of Methimazole is very similar to propylthiouracil. Methimazole binds to thyroid peroxidase which causes the conversion of iodide to iodine to not occur. Generally, thyroid peroxidase converts iodide to iodine and incorporates the iodide molecule to either three or five positions on the phenol rings of the tyrosines that are found on thyroglobulin. Thyroglobulin breaks down to produce T4 and T3 which are the main hormones produced by the thyroid; therefore Methimazole inhibits the production of new thyroid...