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Welfare State Essay

1977 words - 8 pages

WELFARE STATE

The term was firstly used by Pontiff Temple in 1941. However, some other

authors emphasize that it was firstly used in 1934 by Alfred Zimmern who is

from Oxford, besides that, it became even more popular thanks to the ‘’Citizen

and Churchman’’ book, written in 1940. Nevertheless, its widespread in

literature occurred by Beceridge Report in 1942. It is seen that before and most

of 20th century, ‘’welfare’’ and ‘’state’’ terms aren’t used together. It is only

between the years of 1945 and 1980 that these two words have a strong

relationship. During that period, the statement of ‘’welfare state’’ became a

common idiom in politics and citizen language.

...view middle of the document...

During 1970’s Pacific countries like

Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong and Singapore took significant steps on the

road of becoming welfare states (Japan had followed the same way long time

ago).

There is still no exact definition for ‘’welfare state’’ and has ben described by

different words throughout the history. Definitions vary from the ones giving

minimum responsibility to welfare state (meeting the needs in minimum level

and meeting minimum standards) to the ones providing welfare state a huge

movement area (education, dwelling, social services etc.). Welfare states show

differences according to nation-states’ economical, cultural and historical

traditions.


According to Asa Briggs, who is shown as a reference in many works, ‘’welfare

state is a sort of state in which organized public power is used consciously in

order to decrease the roles of market powers.’’ He also states that welfare state is

active in three fields. The first one is providing the guarantee of minimum level

of income. Second one is helping people to overcome some specific social risks

(sickness, old age, unemployment etc.). The third one is having the responsibility

of best life standards via social welfare services.

To be more specific, according to Asa Briggs, the effect of welfare state should

happen in three ways: It should provide the guarantee of minimum income,

decrease insecurity, give everybody to the right of having best standards.

According to another definition, welfare state is defined as a modern state

concept that carries the responsibility of fair income distribution by the tax and

payment policies, looks after needy group and classes, shapes social security

implementations, conducts policies to meet basic needs like education, health

and dwelling.

THE CLASSIFICATION OF WELFARE STATES

There have been works trying to classify welfare state, the very first works

are the ones written by Wilensky and Lebeaux in 1958, which categorizes

welfare states into two groups: residual, institutional welfare states. Another

classification that classifies welfare states into three categories belongs to

Richard Titmuss. Esping-Andersen also made a triple categorization just as

Titmuss’. Andersen chose to classify welfare states as: ‘’liberal model’’, ‘’Christian

model’’ and ‘’social democratic model’’. The basis of Andersen’s dividing in such a

way is reasoned by the logic of welfare states’ building period. The social

democratic welfare model, which is widespread in North America countries

(Scandinavian model), tries to set basic needs free (health) from market

relations.

Esping Andersen, Gøsta. 1990. Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Esping‐Andersen, Gøsta. 1993. “The Comparative Macro‐Sociology of Welfare States”. In Luis Moreno (ed.) Social Exchange and Welfare Development, Madrid: Csic, 123‐36.

Esping Andersen, Gøsta....

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