The term was firstly used by Pontiff Temple in 1941. However, some other
authors emphasize that it was firstly used in 1934 by Alfred Zimmern who is
from Oxford, besides that, it became even more popular thanks to the ‘’Citizen
and Churchman’’ book, written in 1940. Nevertheless, its widespread in
literature occurred by Beceridge Report in 1942. It is seen that before and most
of 20th century, ‘’welfare’’ and ‘’state’’ terms aren’t used together. It is only
between the years of 1945 and 1980 that these two words have a strong
relationship. During that period, the statement of ‘’welfare state’’ became a
common idiom in politics and citizen language.
During 1970’s Pacific countries like
Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong and Singapore took significant steps on the
road of becoming welfare states (Japan had followed the same way long time
There is still no exact definition for ‘’welfare state’’ and has ben described by
different words throughout the history. Definitions vary from the ones giving
minimum responsibility to welfare state (meeting the needs in minimum level
and meeting minimum standards) to the ones providing welfare state a huge
movement area (education, dwelling, social services etc.). Welfare states show
differences according to nation-states’ economical, cultural and historical
According to Asa Briggs, who is shown as a reference in many works, ‘’welfare
state is a sort of state in which organized public power is used consciously in
order to decrease the roles of market powers.’’ He also states that welfare state is
active in three fields. The first one is providing the guarantee of minimum level
of income. Second one is helping people to overcome some specific social risks
(sickness, old age, unemployment etc.). The third one is having the responsibility
of best life standards via social welfare services.
To be more specific, according to Asa Briggs, the effect of welfare state should
happen in three ways: It should provide the guarantee of minimum income,
decrease insecurity, give everybody to the right of having best standards.
According to another definition, welfare state is defined as a modern state
concept that carries the responsibility of fair income distribution by the tax and
payment policies, looks after needy group and classes, shapes social security
implementations, conducts policies to meet basic needs like education, health
THE CLASSIFICATION OF WELFARE STATES
There have been works trying to classify welfare state, the very first works
are the ones written by Wilensky and Lebeaux in 1958, which categorizes
welfare states into two groups: residual, institutional welfare states. Another
classification that classifies welfare states into three categories belongs to
Richard Titmuss. Esping-Andersen also made a triple categorization just as
Titmuss’. Andersen chose to classify welfare states as: ‘’liberal model’’, ‘’Christian
model’’ and ‘’social democratic model’’. The basis of Andersen’s dividing in such a
way is reasoned by the logic of welfare states’ building period. The social
democratic welfare model, which is widespread in North America countries
(Scandinavian model), tries to set basic needs free (health) from market
Esping Andersen, Gøsta. 1990. Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Esping‐Andersen, Gøsta. 1993. “The Comparative Macro‐Sociology of Welfare States”. In Luis Moreno (ed.) Social Exchange and Welfare Development, Madrid: Csic, 123‐36.
Esping Andersen, Gøsta....