This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

West Nile Virus Essay

1367 words - 5 pages

Multi-Dimensional Factors Associated with the 2012 West Nile Virus Epidemic in TexasWest Nile Virus is an arbovirus that is transmitted mainly by Culex mosquitos. WNV transmission is maintained through zoonotic cycles in birds which are the reservoir hosts for the disease. The majority of those infected with WNV (about 80%) will be asymptomatic and show no signs of the disease. The other 20% of the individuals infected with WNV experience symptoms of West Nile Fever. These symptoms include fever, headaches, fatigue, muscle pain, malaise, nausea and vomiting. In rare cases (about 1%), victims will experience West Nile neuroinvasive disease where the virus infects the central nervous system and results in meningitis and encephalitis. Oftentimes, this more serious type of infection will result in death. WNV has been around globally for hundreds of years, but was only recently introduced into the United States in New York in 1999. Since its introduction, the US has experienced a relatively constant number of cases over the years until 2012. In 2012, WNV have spiked dramatically. 48 of the 50 states have reported WNV infections either in humans or animals, and 5245 cases of WNV in humans has marked the highest number of WNV in the history of the U.S. (CDC, 2012). The majority of the cases this year can be attributed to 6 states with Texas being the leading contributor (about 1/3 of the total number of cases). Of the 1782 cases reported in Texas, 82 patients died. This number also represents the highest incidence of death in Texas with the next closest number of deaths being 17 in 2007 (DSHS, 2012). The spike in WNV cases has been the center of debate among health professionals, scientists, and entomologists as they strive to find possible explanations for the outbreak. Much of the increase can be attributed to the high temperatures experienced across the country as well as the rain/drought cycles that Texas has experienced.
County

Deaths

WNND

WNF

Cases

Brazoria

0

4

4

8

Brazos

0

8

5

13

Austin

0

0

1

1

Harris

4

37

24

61

Total (in TX)

82

816

976

1792

The enzootic cycle of WNV is fueled by the presence of birds and mosquitos. Various species of birds are involved in the cycle, but the mosquitos responsible for carrying WNV usually belong to the Culex genus. In the US, Culex pipiens (Eastern US), Culex tarsalis (Midwest and West), and Culex quinquefasciatus (Southeast) are the main sources. The birds involved in the enzootic cycle are reservoir hosts that can keep the pathogen active until other mosquitos feed on the infected birds and pick of the flavivirus. These mosquitos then can infect humans with WNV resulting in cases of West Nile fever.Temperature and precipitation can greatly influence the WNV enzootic cycle. Increase in temperature increases the activity of mosquitos. As the temperature goes up, mosquitos fly around more which increases the incidence of biting and feeding. More birds are...

Find Another Essay On West Nile Virus

West Nile Virus, All About It

1113 words - 4 pages The West Nile Virus. This is something that we have heard a lot about these past few summers. The only thing is that the virus has been around for quite a while but has never spread like it has these past years. The virus is very threatening in the mosquito-infested areas such as we live in. It can be a deadly virus causing brain infection, you to become paralyzed or even death if you do not know how to treat it, but if you catch it in time you

West Nile Virus: What is it and how did it get here?

2322 words - 9 pages AbstractMy intention for this paper is to address the origin of the West Nile virus; comparing the most recent human and equine case statistics in the United States. The comparison will primarily be based on articles found on the Internet, some from scientists and government agencies, and some from lay persons trying to make a difference. The information in this paper is not to change any person's opinion but to give the reader statistics and

Description of the Nile Virus With a Twist

1299 words - 5 pages speaking, Mr. Nile Virus is no laughing matter. The best way, really, to stop the continued spreading of this fatal infection is through prevention. Remember the saying, "Prevention is better than cure." You will not want to be infected by Mr. Nile Virus, will you? Therefore, fight him with your newfound knowledge about him and the way to prevent his virusREFERENCESAnderson, R. R. & Harrington, L.C. (n.d.). Medical Entomology Extension. West Nile

West Nile and the Mosquito

1391 words - 6 pages virus came fromAlthough outbreaks around the world were not uncommon the appearance of the Wes Nile Virus did not occur in the United States until 1999 in New York City. This occurrence marked the first major manifestation in the continental U.S.. Now the virus is found in virtually every state. Prior to the appearance in the United States the virus was most commonly found in Africa, West Asia and the Middle East. Although it is estimated that the

How a Mosquito Bite Can Cost the US Millions of Dollars

1144 words - 5 pages U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that the country spends millions of dollars each year in the treatment of West Nile virus disease, a condition transmitted to humans by a mosquito bite. In fact, hospitalizations and follow-ups related to the disease cost nearly $800M in healthcare expenses as well as lost productivity since 1999. This means that the United States spends about $56M annually for direct and indirect

Transmission of Livestock Diseases to Humans

4146 words - 17 pages /import regulations. However, even the US is not impervious to outbreaks of strange and exotic diseases. Since 1999, our country has been witness to the slow, but steady ambush of West Nile Virus, an exotic disease that has never before been seen in the Western hemisphere. "West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated from the blood of a woman with a febrile disease in the West Nile district of Uganda in 1937," (Garmendia 223). "It was

Rhetorical Sensitivity is Fundamental for College Students

1274 words - 6 pages their economic status and the region where they live in. Perhaps, the writer might reach more than one intended audience. For example, If a student is assigned to educate parents about West Nile Virus, he might want to consider the type of material he wants to include such as graphics, statistics, number of cases with the decease, other resources, etc. He might also want to consider how the information should be phrased, For instance, the writer

Malathion Applications To Rid Genericville City of Harmful Mosquitoes

859 words - 3 pages The area surrounding the city of Genericville is a perfect home and breeding ground for mosquitoes that possibly could be carrying the West Nile Virus (WNV). There is a high risk for citizens of Genericville to become a carrier of this deadly virus. With fatalities being reported action is need to reduce illnesses caused by mosquitoes. To reduce the population of mosquitoes spraying with Malathion, could be suggest as a hazardous insecticide

Role of Toll-like receptors in detecting Flaviviruses

2660 words - 11 pages flavirus, but the most well known and dangerous are West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Yellow fever, and Tick-borne encephalitis. These viruses all have similar symptoms: fever, headache and malaise. In severe cases these viruses can cause encephalitis, which is swelling of the brain, and hemorrhagic fever, which is severe fever which causes capillaries to hemorrhage and cause internal bleeding [2]. Since these last two symptoms are serious and could even

"Vector Organisms and the Diseases They Carry "

903 words - 4 pages of the brain caused by the West Nile Virus, a virus found in Africa, Eastern Europe, and West Asia. It is a mystery how West Nile Encephalitis came to the U.S. Some of the possibilities are that infected birds migrated to the U.S. Another possibility is that an infected human traveled here and was bitten by a mosquito here, which then infected more and more people. The symptoms of West Nile Encephalitis are flu-like infections. These are very

The Role of Water Quality in Public Health

781 words - 4 pages historically been August 15 through September 15. The Georgia Department of Public Health reported two human cases of West Nile Virus in Georgia through August 22, 2013. While most of the state received above-average rainfall during the summer of 2013, which led to large mosquito populations, a relatively small population of the Southern house mosquito (the mosquito that transmits the virus to humans) was present which drastically reduced the number of

Similar Essays

West Nile Virus Essay

1115 words - 4 pages behavior, and technology and industry. One emerging infectious disease that has been re-emerging is the West Nile Virus. Disease and Pathology West Nile virus is an emerging infectious disease because it keeps re-emerging; showing an increase in incidence and it has spread to different geographic areas by modern transportation. This virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda, Africa and it has existed in Africa and the Middle East for

West Nile Virus Essay

2205 words - 9 pages An estimated 80% of people with West Nile Virus are asymptomatic (Sejavar, 2014). This is explained by the disease’s nature of attack on the host’s immune system and how much the host can handle as a result. Another reason is due to the different strains of West Nile Virus and how virulent they are (Jeha & Sila, 2009). A large percentage of the patients that develop symptoms due to WNV suddenly develop a congenital, fiery fever in other

Impact Of West Nile Virus On Humans

1094 words - 4 pages The Impact of West Nile Virus on Humans (or Why We Should Worry) West Nile virus can infect humans, but there are more drastic ways that it affects our lives. The virus normally lives in birds and is transmitted among them and other animals by mosquitoes. There is no other definite method of transmission, and people do not have to worry about contracting the virus through contact with infected humans or animals. Hundreds of species of birds

West Nile Virus In The United States

2597 words - 10 pages West Nile virus (WNV) is a single-stranded flavivirus mostly present in the eastern hemisphere that can affect humans, birds, horses, mosquitoes, and other domestic and wild animals. It has plagued the world since it was first identified in West Nile province of Uganda in 1937 (Sally Murray). Since this time, according to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), the disease has been spotted in “Africa … Europe