We chose to research about wetlands because they are very unique and special. Wetlands used to be extremely common during prehistoric times, but now there are only small areas left. Some plants and animals exist only in the wetland biomes, such as the star fruit and water vole. But, as the amount of wetlands decreased, many organisms became endangered and even extinct. We wanted to find out more about what the characteristics of wetlands and what is being done to help the environment.
A wetland is an area where the ground is soaked or underwater for most of the year. Therefore, the ground is soggy and soft for the most part. Marshes and wet meadows are flooded grasslands, swamps are watery forests, and bogs and fens are areas with peat-covered ground. Tidal activity causes the water level of coastal marshes’ to change. Wet meadows are flooded for short periods each year; thus, they have drier soils than most other wetlands. In many large wetland complexes, the different wetlands overlap with each other, and the organisms in the individual wetlands interact with organisms from a neighboring wetland. Wetlands are considered transitional habitats, which is land that is between solid grounds with flowing or standing water. With the moist conditions of wetlands, it is one of the richest habitats on earth.
Wetlands provide many valuable resources, such as “hungry season” food supplies, domestic water and materials for income diversification. People pick different berries to eat from wetlands, as well as moss and wild rice. Wetlands also produce fossil fuels. Wetlands provide essential functions in our environment, such as providing habitats for animals and helping prevent erosion.
Wetlands do not have a characteristic climate because it exists in polar, temperate, and tropical zones, thus, the temperature and amount of rainfall depends on the location. However, most of the wetlands are in temperate zones, which has warm summers and cold winters with no extremes. The wetlands in the tropics are always warm. Wetlands on the Arabian Peninsula can reach 122F. In northeastern Siberia, polar region, it can be as low as -60F. As with temperature, rainfall heavily depends on the location. For example, many places in Europe receive 59 inches of rain annually; Southeast Asia can receive 200 inches per year. The wetlands of northern North America receive 6 inches of rain a year. Because of the great variety of climates, wetlands are hard to define and distinguish.
While a wetland is considered an aquatic biome they still have soil and usually do not have sand. The soil in wetlands are called hydric which means it forms under extremely wet conditions and does not require nearly as much oxygen as normal soils. The soil is also usually made of sands, clay, and silt. The water of a wetland could be freshwater, saltwater, or even brackish water, a mixture of both saltwater and fresh water. The water is relatively still and is normally less than 7 feet...