What Are The Causes And Effects Of Interactions Between The Solar Wind And Planetary Bodies?

3028 words - 12 pages

The Solar WindSince our sun formed, around 4.6 billion years ago it has been the ultimate source of energy and light on Earth. Made of 73% hydrogen, 25% helium and around 50 other trace elements and radiating 4 x 1026 watts of energy every second , it has not only emitted electromagnetic radiation through the nuclear fusion of atoms in its core but also produces huge amounts of ionised gas due to the high temperatures. This gas is known as the solar wind and one million tonnes is emitted each second. It is comprised of a hot plasma of free electrons and positive ions, atoms which have lost their electrons in the violent collisions at 1,000,000°K. Being a plasma, it can conduct electric currents and its particles, with the entrained solar magnetic field, can be steered by other magnetic fields. It is ejected continuously from the suns corona, but sometimes more violent solar activity occurs, solar flares and prominences, and sends out large amounts at one time. The picture below shows mass coronal ejections from the sun.The time it takes to reach Earth has been recorded at roughly 4 days, by seeing how long it takes mass ejection of particles viewed on one day to reach the Earth and produce an aurora. From this, the speed at which the particles travel can be calculated.Average time taken for particles to reach Earth = 4 days4 days converted to seconds = 4 x 24 x 60 x 60 = 345600 secondsAverage distance of Earth from sun = 149.6 x 106kmSpeed = Distance =149.6 x 106km = 432.9kms-1345600The magnetic field lines created by the sun are wound into a spiral as the sun rotates, meaning that at Earth the angle at which the field hits it is almost 45° whilst at Saturn the field is almost perpendicular to the planet. However the solar wind travels outwards in straight lines, until it merges to equal particle density with the interstellar medium, at a point called the heliopause, or it encounters a planetary body. If the body has a magnetic field, then the particles are deflected by the region of space surrounding it, known as the magnetosphere. This is the region around a body where its own magnetic field dominates the behaviour of electrically charged particles.What is the cause of Planetary Magnetospheres?For a magnetosphere to be present the body must have a magnetic field. The diagram below shows the Earth's magnetic field.One explanation of how planetary magnetic fields were created is due to their presence in the Sun's massive magnetic field. This is formed by the nuclear fusion in the Sun's rotating core causing extremely vigorous motion of electrically conductive matter and therefore a dynamo. The idea is that when the solar system was forming 4½ billion years ago, the iron in the solidifying planets created a magnetic field in line with the interplanetary field. Whilst this theory works with the smaller terrestrial planets, the larger gas giants still have interior temperatures that remain above the point at which iron and other...

Find Another Essay On What are the Causes and Effects of Interactions Between the Solar Wind and Planetary Bodies?

The Causes and Effects of the Crusades

644 words - 3 pages If you ask someone if they ever heard of the Crusades the answer will most likely be yes. Does that mean that they know what the Crusades are? No. Many Jewish people who don’t know much about the Crusades assume it was merely targeted against the Jews and it resulted in the death of countless Jews. Other than that they are oblivious to the true facts. So what were the Crusades? The Crusades were great military missions embarked on by the

Cultural Interactions between the British and the Native Characters

1189 words - 5 pages is perceived as being masculine towards India [feminine]. However, Forster still supports the Indian men as being masculine by taking the servitor and the punkah puller as symbols of the general Indian men. It was the servitor duty to bring Krishna’s birthday celebration to an end (Forster, 1979: 309). In conclusion, it is evident in Forster’s novel A passage to India that there are cultural interactions between the natives and the British. It

Maquiladoras and the Exploitation of Women's Bodies

1446 words - 6 pages are disappearing being raped and mutilated before ultimately being killed and "abandoned like meat by-products in the desert" (Pérez, March 2004). These women's bodies are entering unknowingly and unwilling into a war about cultural norms and a changing economic atmosphere. The exploitation of and war on women's bodies in Juárez was set in motion long before they began being murdered in large numbers; it was instigated in the maquiladoras were

The Effects of Alcohol on the Marital Interactions of Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Husbands

2137 words - 9 pages The Effects of Alcohol on the Marital Interactions of Aggressive and Non-Aggressive Husbands In today's world of marriage it seems as if everyday there are more and more divorces and separations between couples. What this Psychological study examined was maybe the biggest negative effector of these relationships and that is the mixture of alcohol and problem solving in marital interactions. Alcohol in excessive nature was reported in the

Causes and Effects of The Black Death

931 words - 4 pages the Black Death. The effects of the plague has changed the world ever since. The world has been changed economically, religiously and population wise. Will Death finish the job next time? Works Cited http://www.humanities360.com/index.php/causes-and-effects-of-the-black-death-in-europe-4-52545/ http://www.customessaymeister.com/customessays/History%3A%20European/3575.htm http://essayinfo.com/sample/essay/426/ http

The Effects and Causes of Volcanic Activity

1925 words - 8 pages the air, the sulfuric acid condenses to form sulfate aerosols. The aerosols are what causes the temperature of the Earth’s lower atmosphere to decrease, by increasing the reflectivity of radiation from the Sun back into space. In an article from the Scientific American, Karen Harpp (2002) discusses how Benjamin Franklin might have made the first connection between volcanoes and global climate. In 1783, he had observed the climate to be cold

The Causes and Effects of Global Warming

2747 words - 11 pages This paper was written for a Global Issues class. It includes an introduction, a section which explains what the greenhouse effect is and a section on evidence that suggests it is occurring. It explains the effects of global warming, including the impact on ecosystems, animal species, plant species, and human species. The paper ends by offering possible solutions, and a conclusion. Also includes 2 references.IntroductionGlobal warming is easiest

The Causes And Effects Of Divorce

1258 words - 5 pages drastically bringing new effects in the lives of those individuals involved. Some causes for divorce vary from couple to couple, but the most frequent ones tend to be, change of women’s role in society, lack of communication, and lack of trust in the relationship. One significant cause that leads to divorce is the change in women’s roles. In the past, women depended only on their husbands’ earnings. Meanwhile, they had to do most of the housework

Causes and Effects of the American Revolution

1587 words - 6 pages paper will examine the specific causes and effects of the American Revolution. Ideology really laid the foundation for the Revolution. British citizens, including those in the North American colonies, felt a special sense of pride in their political system. Unlike in other European countries at the time, the English king did not possess absolute control over his country. England has a parliament, and that stood as a check against the king’s power

Causes and Effects of the Civil War

726 words - 3 pages      Did you know America’s bloodiest battle fought on their own soil was the Civil War? The Civil War was fought on American soil between the northern states and the southern states. Many causes provoked the war, which would affect the nation for decades to come. Slavery, the Missouri Compromise, and John Brown’s attack on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, were some of the many causes. In turn hundreds of thousands of soldiers

The Causes and Effects of Obesity

1440 words - 6 pages So much of what occurs in this world is a result of cause and effect. For instance, if a match is struck; a flame ignites, if water is put on the flame; the flame is extinguished, if more fuel is added to the fire; the fire gets bigger. A major problem in our society today, the problem of obesity, results from cause and effect. While many factors are involved, the causes for obesity are ultimately from choices made by individuals. One of the

Similar Essays

"Our Dynamic Solar System" The Origin Of The Solar System, Laws Governing The Solar System, The Sun, The Planets And The Other Bodies That Are Included.

3331 words - 13 pages coma can reach a similar diameter to that of a giant planet! Jets of gas and dust form long tails that we can see from Earth.Asteroids are small bodies that are believed to be left over from the beginning of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. They are rocky objects with round or irregular shapes up to several hundred km across, but most are much smaller. More than 100,000 asteroids lie in a belt between Mars and Jupiter. These asteroids lie in

Alternative Energy: Solar And Wind Essay

2284 words - 9 pages atmospheric pressure over different areas of land. Areas of cold air, often formed over bodies of water, are denser than warm areas of air over land. The second law of thermodynamics states that higher energy states move toward lower energy states in attempt to balance or equalize pressure. This attempt of pressure equalization in effect is what causes wind. The seasons created by the revolution of the earth around the sun create a never-ending cycle of

Pro Solar And Wind Energy Essay

1111 words - 5 pages august and his assistant Abel pilre constructed the first ever solar steam engine. Selenium photovoltaic cells are converted from light to electricity by 1 to 2 percent efficiency. The first commercial solar water heater was invented in 1891 by the inventor named Baltimore. Wind turbines were small until 1940s the largest wind turbine began operating in Vermont hilltop known as grandpa’s knob. The university of Delaware build “solar one” one of the

What Are The Positive And Negative Effects Of Alcohol?

2225 words - 9 pages tolerance either once or many times over a long period of time, then the results could be fatal. Alcohol has many benefits to those who drink it casually, but if more than 2-3 drinks are consumed over a short period of time then the negative effects start to occur. There are many factors that will effect how each person reacts to a certain amount of alcohol. Some factors include: weight, tolerance, food in stomach, and amount of time between each drink