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What Are The Main Reasons Why Women Are More Likely To Be In Poverty Than Men Since 1945

455 words - 2 pages

Causes of Poverty to WomenThe feminisation of poverty has meant a higher percentage of women than men are likely to experience poverty throughout their lives (TUC). Society views a husbands income as primary to be shared amongst the family and a wife's role as domestic worker and carer (Brown: 1983). The male control of economic power within the family can cause unequal resource access, with acute cases resulting in a wife's poverty when her needs are sacrificed to provide adequate distribution for the children (Glendinning: 1992 ).Labour market gender divisions exist as employment policies regard women as secondary earners, encouraging traditional, low paid, service sector work ...view middle of the document...

As social security is based on the principle of continuous remunerated employment, labour market inequalities result in women paying lower National Insurance contributions than the threshold leading to penalisation or dis-entitlement to SS except the means tested minimum, which if qualify are likely to receive lower benefit than their male counterparts (Glendinning: 1992). Female social security benefits are inadequate in both the private and public sectors as assumptions are structured upon male full time employment, with a husband providing replacement (Lewis: 1983).Male financial dependency by a loan parent, of whom 90% are female, can entail difficulties of, rarely adequate, maintenance enforcement (Glendinning: 1992). Loan parents are typically unable to meet childcare costs to enable availability for full time employment, leading to NI disqualification and a lack of incentive to work as childcare costs can equal income making state benefits preferential (Brown: 1983).Diminutive savings by retirement are a consequence of the culmination of gender disadvantage. Further, part time employment results in poor access to both state and company pension schemes due to lower N.I contributions and company policies of full time employment. As woman live on average ten years longer than men any provisions are diluted over a longer period.Women are denied equal access to employment as a result of assumptions of male full time employment. This inequality systematically disadvantages women and greatly compromises their protection from poverty (Dale: 1986).

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