Urbanization- Extended Study
The definition of an urban area changes from country to country. In general, there are no standards, and each country develops its own set of criteria for distinguishing cities or urban areas. A city is generally defined as a political unit, i.e., a place organized and governed by an administrative body. A way of defining a city or an urban area is by the number of residents.
Urbanization is the concentration of human populations into isolated areas, leading to transformation of land into residential, industrial, commercial and transportation purposes.
The urbanization process refers to much more than simple population magnification; it involves vicissitudes in the economic, gregarious and political structures of a region. Rapid urban magnification is responsible for many environmental and convivial vicissitudes in the urban environment and its effects are vigorously cognate to global change issues. The rapid magnification of cities strains their capacity to provide accommodations such as energy, inculcation, health care, conveyance, sanitation and physical security. Because regimes have less revenue to spend on the fundamental upkeep of cities and the provision of accommodations, cities have become areas of massive sprawl, earnest environmental quandaries, and widespread impecuniosities.
Incipient job opportunities in the cities motivated the mass kineticism of surplus population away from the countryside. Concurrently, migrants provided frugal, plentiful labor for the emerging factories. Today, due to forms of kineticism such as globalization, the circumstances are kindred in developing countries. Here the concentration of investments in cities magnetizes sizably voluminous numbers of migrants probing for employment, thereby engendering an astronomically immense surplus labor force, which keeps wages low. This situation is captivating to foreign investment companies from developed countries that can engender goods for far less than if the goods were engendered where wages are higher. Rapid urbanization in Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs) is causing many quandaries. Many incipient migrants to cities in LEDCs cannot afford housing. They are coerced to build ephemeral accommodation in spontaneous settlements.
Rio de Janerio, Brazil's most sizably voluminous settlements, contains a population of approximately 11.7 million people. Natural Increase is one reason for its magnification (this is when the birth rate is higher than the death rate). The population has withal grown as the result of urbanization. This has been caused by rural to urban migration. Millions of people have migrated from Brazil's rural areas to Rio de Janeiro. 65% of urban magnification is a result of migration. These are caused by a variety of push and pull factors. The rapid magnification of Rio de Janeiro's population has led to an astringent shortage of housing.
As the Fig1...