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The Causes Of Social Exclusion Essay

3111 words - 12 pages

The Causes of Social Exclusion

Social exclusion refers to inequality in society, where individuals or
groups may be cut off in involvement with the wider society. Social
exclusion can take a number of forms. An individual or group may be
excluded due to their age cohert, gender, race, educational
background, neighbourhood, class and more. A class in social terms can
be defines as a large scale grouping of people who share common
economic resources which strongly influence the type of lifestyle they
are able to lead. (Gidden, 2001 p.282) There are mainly three types of
classes in society today, the upper class, the working class and the
underclass. The underclass population being structured at the bottom
of society.

In 1962, Mydral first described the underclass as being unemployed,
but twenty years later, a New York journalist named Ken Auletta (1982)
argued this view. Ken said that the underclass is a group of poor
people who were not included in society due to dependency on state
benefits, denial of work ethics, failed morality and rejection of
family norms. Muncie J (1999). People who are likely to commit street
crimes and be involved in urban riots also come into this group.
Observers may say that the underclass is a group of society whom are
not involved in production work or those that have been excluded from
the labour market systematically. The young and homeless may be
referred to as the underclass, though some may bring the black
population that are dependent on state welfare into this category. The
poorest groups and individuals in society have been marked out as
being dangerous classes and social outcasts. Illegitimate births,
crime, drug abuse, single mothers, prostitution and begging are all
seen as key features for the underclass. (Muncie, 1999 p.140)

Ken (1982) believes that the underclass is the people that cannot
escape from poverty. He believes that there are four following
underclass groups:

1) The passive poor, usually long term welfare recipients (presumably
lone mothers)

2) The hostile street criminals, dropouts and drug addicts

3) The hustlers, dependant n the underground economy but rarely
involved in violent crimes

4) The traumatised drunks, drifters, homeless bag ladies and released
mental patients.

(Morris,1994 p.81)

A protagonist, Charles Murray believes that though illegitimate births
are the prime factor for development of the underclass, a definite
proof is of young and healthy males who choose not to work. He said
that violent crimes, illegitimate births, and unemployment were the
main reasons for an underclass. Although single mothers could be good
mothers and single fathers good fathers, it is not the same as having
two parents and being brought up in a stable household.

Illegitimacy has increased since...

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