What Is Metabolic Syndrome? Essay

2259 words - 9 pages

Introduction
Metabolic syndrome is a prevalent illness that is negatively impacting the health of individuals around the world. This prevalence is due to a rise in the rates of adult obesity, and is resulting in excess mortality due to an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes.1,3 It is defined as a cluster of conditions that occur together, which increases the individual’s risk of heart disease, stroke and diabetes.2 Metabolic risk factors responsible for this syndrome include having a large waistline, a high triglyceride level, a low HDL cholesterol level, high blood pressure, and high fasting blood sugar.1 Three of these risk factors must be present in order to be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, with the risk for heart disease, diabetes, and stroke increasing with each risk factor an individual may present.1
Although this increasing trend for obesity spans across populations, it is especially prominent among individuals with schizophrenia.3 Evidence to support this has been demonstrated throughout the literature. In a study conducted by Allison et al., 42% of individuals with schizophrenia were found to have a body mass index (BMI) greater than 27 kg/m2, compared to 27% of the general population.3,4 Also compared to the general population, schizophrenic patients have been shown to have 20% shorter lifespans, reflecting this population’s high prevalence of chronic conditions such as diabetes, coronary artery disease, and hypertension.5
There are many factors that contribute to this populations’ increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome. One of the most prominent factors is the use of atypical antipsychotic drugs. Despite their effectiveness in treating the positive and negative symptoms associated with schizophrenia, they are often paired with adverse side effects such as weight gain, development of diabetes, and abnormal changes in serum lipid levels.5 Other factors that contribute to their risk of developing metabolic syndrome is lack of exercise and a poor diet that generally consists of a surplus of fat and sugar.3 Ratliff et al. measured the dietary and physical activity habits of 130 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and compared them to BMI-, age-, sex-, and racially-matched controls.3 Individuals with schizophrenia were shown to have significantly higher levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and insulin, and had an increased waist circumference and diastolic blood pressure than did the comparison group.3 Although daily energy intake was not different between groups, individuals with schizophrenia consumed significantly greater amounts of sugar and fat, and reported less moderate physical activity than the comparison group.3
Approximately 70-75% of patients with schizophrenia can be classified as being physically inactive, and do not meet the minimal physical activity recommendations.6 Factors that contribute to this populations’ sedentary lifestyle include the negative...

Find Another Essay On What Is Metabolic Syndrome?

Living With Down Syndrome Essay

2582 words - 10 pages syndrome. However, it was the geneticist Jerome Lejeune who discovered the gene abnormality which in turn manifests the physical and mental traits Dr. Down was studying (Moran). Dr. Down showed us what Down syndrome looks like, but Jerome Lejeune showed us where it came from. Down syndrome is a disorder that happens when a baby is conceived, not something that happens after they are born or as they continue to grow into adulthood. This is due

Maternal Age and Down Syndrome Essay

2551 words - 10 pages , short and broad hands, which are features commonly identified with Down syndrome. He later wrote an essay entitled “Observations of the Ethnic Classification of Idiots” in which he asserts the notion that it was possible to classify different types of health conditions through race. His essay included his now famous classification of what is today known as Down syndrome, which he categorized as the Mongolian type of idiot. As a result of his

Down Syndrome

1117 words - 4 pages 100 trillion cells. Our genes are located in chromosomes. Each cell in your body contains 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs. In a person with Down syndrome, there are 47 chromosomes. In 1956, a French researcher named Jerome Lejeune used a new powerful microscope to view human strands of DNA. DNA is what holds an individual person’s genes. He studied these DNA strands and determined that there is an extra strand in chromosome 21, which is now called

The Cause and Effects of Down Syndrome

1274 words - 5 pages The Cause and Effects of Down Syndrome Some people wonder what Down syndrome is. How it is caused, and how it is treated. The causes and effects of Down syndrome is when there is an extra 21St chromosome. The effects include some birth defects and health problems. The physical features are different from someone without Down syndrome. What is Down syndrome? It is a chromosomal disorder caused by an error in cell division that results in an

karyotype

971 words - 4 pages , paleness, shortness of breath, and easy bleeding and bruising. When early detected, you can prepare yourself to take extreme causes to be safe. (WebMD public info from national cancer Institute, 2014). Works Cited Crosta, P. (2009, April 8). [What Is Down Syndrome? What Causes Down Syndrome?].      Retrieved July 18, 2013, from Medical News Today website:      http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/145554.php nstitute of Child Health

Genetic Disorders and Down Syndrome

1177 words - 5 pages and cause mild to severe mental retardation. Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, Turners syndrome and many other syndromes result from a mutation of a chromosome, an extra chromosome, or too few chromosomes. Discovered in 1991, Fragile X syndrome is considered a fairly new genetic disorder. According to The Fragile X Association, Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is caused by the expansion or lengthening of the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome, known as a

Down Syndrome Chromosome Twenty One

1214 words - 5 pages diabetes, having leukemia and having seizure episodes. There is no cure for Down syndrome but some of the added affects to Down syndrome can be treated. The heart defects and other added problems can be treated by surgical repair. Depending on what all is added to your Down syndrome there can be different levels of severity. This severity is due to whether or not there is presence of other issues like leukemia, heart defect and infections. The

Translocated Down Syndrome

1221 words - 5 pages Translocated Down Syndrome Translocated Down Syndrome is genetically passed on from a parent’s gene to its child (Clinical Key, 2012). In this paper we will look at a short description of what Down syndrome really is, the genetic causes of Translocated Down syndrome, symptoms, characteristics, medications, intervention programs and testing for Down syndrome while an infant is still in the womb. The effects of Down syndrome are caused by an

Sedentary Behaviors and Cardiovascular Diseases

1797 words - 7 pages identify various active actions during sedentary activities by recording the duration and frequency of these actions. The evaluation of these movements determine whether they are beneficial to cardiovascular health and then placed into an action plan. Article 2 (Ford) Research Question/Participants/Task/Measures/Results: Is there a correlation between sedentary behaviors and metabolic syndrome? The total of 1,626 men and women over the age of

Angelman Syndrome: A Genetic Disease

1163 words - 5 pages an example, their appearance is seen as having pale skin and light –colored hair (“Angelman Syndrome.” Genetics). They are not usually known to talk, yet may have laughing fits. They are always in a happy and a positive mood, despite their genetic disease and what they have to go through because of it. Due to their genetic change in them, a person with Angelman Syndrome has a different life from a person who does not have a genetic disease. A

Rare Disorders: Causes of The Lesh-Nyhan Disease

1241 words - 5 pages Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (or disease), I believe the term is used interchangeably, is a rare disorder that is carried by mother and passed to son, and occurs because of a deficiency of the enzyme called hypoxanthinine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) [3]. It usually occurs in males and also has a high risk factor for gout because of the metabolic defect associated with the overproduction of uric acid [1, 2]. Uric acid is a waste product

Similar Essays

Obesity And Metabolic Syndrome Essay

1277 words - 5 pages The Center of Disease Control and Prevention (2013) reported that, more than 35% of U.S. adults are obese and suffer metabolic syndrome which can include heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes and a variety of cancers, causing the US more than hundreds of billion dollars for their medical care. It makes some wonder whether the health care Americans have chosen to support our country was the right choice. A managed health care system might not be

Equine Metabolic Syndrome And Its Implications On Laminitis

998 words - 4 pages obese animals, but can occur in horses and ponies who are significantly leaner in their body or even, in some cases, perfectly normal. One key element to each of these horses and ponies is that they could possibly have a condition known as Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) which is causing the chronic laminitic issue. What is Equine Metabolic Syndrome? The condition known as Equine Metabolic Syndrome (EMS) gains its name from the similarities

Toxic Shock Syndrome What Is It? Identify Symptoms Icidence Rates Individuals Affected Treatment Options Prevention Strategies

1173 words - 5 pages Toxic Shock SyndromeIn the late 1970's, you may have heard about the illness, toxic shock syndrome (TSS). TSS was on the highlight reels of the news room as a newly discovered disease. Due to the severity of the illness, we must be aware of this illness. Would you recognize the symptoms? TSS is an extremely rare but potentially serious illness that can affect anyone.TSS is a potentially life-threatening disorder resulting from production of a

A Paper On Reyes Syndrome Done For My Health Class.

1403 words - 6 pages FEVER. REYE'S SYNDROME IS A VERY RARE DISEASE WHICH CAN BE FATAL. FOR THIS REASON ASPIRIN SHOULD NOT BE GIVEN TO CHILDREN UNDER 12 YEARS AND SHOULD BE AVOIDED UP TO AND INCLUDING 15 YEARS OF AGE IF FEVERISH.*What are Reye-like illnesses?Many rare genetic (inherited) disorders of the body chemistry (metabolic disorders) are now known to cause an illness exactly like Reye's syndrome. The early treatment of these "Reye-like illnesses" is similar to