- To explore the increasing prevalence of type II diabetes mellitus in the sub-Saharan region of Africa.
- Identify the risk factors for having the disease early in life.
- Assessment of the extent of the problem posed by type II diabetes.
- Estimating the prevalence of type II diabetes among adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa.
- Identifying possible risk factors.
- Making evidence based conclusions and recommendations for practice or further research.
Diabetes mellitus is a deadly disease in many parts of the world. It is a disease condition that is usually characterized with an elevated blood glucose level. Researchers over the years have worked to determine the metabolic pathways of the disease. It is majorly classified as type I (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) and type II (non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus). Type II diabetes accounts for approximately 90% of all types of diabetes (Pal et al, 2013). Type 2 diabetes is usually considered as a disease of the old; because it usually occurs in individuals above 40 years of age. However, research has shown an increasing prevalence in the young worldwide. As a result of this, it is important to evaluate the number of young people in Sub-Saharan Africa who are living with type II diabetes. In addition to this, several factors that predispose these individuals to development of type II diabetes early in life. Type II diabetes has numerous significant effects that can affect the quality of life of an individual which could successively affect the economy of a nation.
PRELIMINARY LITERATURE REVIEW
The prevalence of type II diabetes is rising and was estimated globally to be 285 million by 2010. Type II diabetes is managed by prescription of drugs to individuals who have a very high level of blood glucose. Exercise, diet and lifestyle change are effective ways of managing type 2 diabetes. Wild et al (2004) estimated that the worldwide prevalence of type 2 is expected to reach 366 million by 2030. The prevalence in the world at large varies according to age, sex, ethnicity and region.
Systematically carrying out a literature review involves step by step processes (Machi and McEvoy, 2009) of how the selection and appraisal of important articles was done. This should be transparent, reproducible and rigorous. Literature reviews are important in research because it is progressive to build a new research concept on existing body of knowledge.
At the beginning, the keywords of the research question were identified with related words. This is done to create a broad and thoughtful review of the existing body of knowledge and to enable you identify the research gaps which subsequently inform and help to shape your research question. Subsequently, a search of databases was done followed by use of necessary criteria to sieve out the literature that is not needed and this will be followed by analysis of selected texts.