This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

What Factors Control Carbon Mineralization And Flux In Bog Soils And How Would These Soils Respond To Global Climate Change?

2159 words - 9 pages

I. Introduction: What is a Bog?

The word "bog," from the old Gaelic "bogach," is commonly used to refer to any stretch of waterlogged, swampy ground. The words, fen, moor, muskeg, peatland, and mire are also used to describe these areas, which can lead to some confusion over terminology. Specifically, a bog is "a peat accumulating wetland that has no significant inflows or outflows and supports acidophilic mosses, particularly sphagnum" (Gosselink and Mitsch 1993). The vast majority of bogs are located in the moist, cool boreal regions of North America and Eurasia. Bogs are also called "peatlands" because of the peat they accumulate, but "peatland" is a more general term that includes "minerotrophic" and "transition" peatlands. These wetlands also accumulate peat, but they differ topographically and hydrologically from bogs. True bogs (ombrotrophic peatlands) are characterized by peat layers higher than their surroundings; they are often called "raised bogs." They also receive nutrients and minerals exclusively by precipitation, i.e. they are hydrologically isolated (Gosselink and Mitsch 1993 p.374). They form in a variety of ways, but once ombrotrophic (rain-nourished) peatlands develop they are stable under "fairly wide environmental fluctuation" (Gosselink and Mitsch 1993 p.372). This discussion will be limited to the true bogs, and they will be referred to as bogs or peatlands.

II. Peat Soils and Carbon Mineralization

Peat is the name for the soil that forms in bogs and other peatlands. It is an organic soil (Histosol), composed almost entirely of partially decayed plant matter. The high percentage of organic fibers in peat makes it a fibrist, which is a Histosol containing less than one third decayed organic matter (USDA 1975 p.66). Peat soils are typically dark brown in color and very acidic (pH= 2.6-4.0). The hydrologic isolation of bog peats causes them to be deficient in nitrogen and other nutrients, limiting the species of plants that can thrive in these soils. Plants that can survive in bogs have evolved to take advantage of other sources of nitrogen; sundews and pitcher plants are two of the more spectacular examples of these adaptations.

One of the important factors necessary for bogs to develop is a surplus of peat production over decomposition, which will be explained later (Gosselink and Mitsch 1993 p.372). This surplus allows undecomposed peat to build up in increasingly thick layers, creating a raised bog and acting as a "sink" for organic carbon. Because of this carbon storage, bogs and other peatlands are important reservoirs in the global carbon cycle. Some researchers estimate that all northern peatlands now store 1.5-4.5 X 1015 kg of carbon (Siegel et al. 1995). As concern grows over the role of carbon in global climate change, knowing the fate of this stored carbon is becomes vitally importance.

Like other waterlogged soils, bog peats are characterized by strongly reducing conditions (Singer and Munns...

Find Another Essay On What Factors Control Carbon Mineralization and Flux in Bog Soils and How Would These Soils Respond to Global Climate Change?

Global Warming and Climate Change Essay

998 words - 4 pages Global warming is a great treat for our planet and its nature. It gradually wipes out everything which exists on the earth’s surface. In recent years, global warming and climate change have become one of the biggest topics, which rise concerns among people. Global warming is an increase in average surface temperature of the earth. It has several negative impacts on the environment and on its inhabitants. Many factors can cause global warming

Climate Change: Turning Carbon Dioxide in Cement

1094 words - 5 pages Calera and crystallographer said, “For every ton of cement we make, we are sequestering half a ton of CO2. We probably have the best carbon capture and storage technique there is by a long shot.” CO2 Reduction and Climate Change Carbon Dioxide is the main contributor to greenhouse gases in the global climate change. CO2 is released from power plants and vehicles all over the world. Approximately 62 million cars are registered in the US alone

Facts About Global Warming and Climate Change

1015 words - 5 pages that the world is facing such crisis. While critics exist, experts warned that global warming is not a mere story to tell but a fact that everyone should look into. Human activities, burning of more fossil fuels, deforestation and industrialization are among the contributory factors in the rapid increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide and climate change. With these, we all have to suffer its dangerous outcomes. We should know that solutions do

Earth’s Cycles and Global Climate Change

1494 words - 6 pages than it can let out, or vice versa, there will be global climate changes. This begs the question, what could cause these imbalances to happen on Earth? Earth’s carbon levels have followed a natural cycle throughout the past 800,000 years where the carbon dioxide concentration varied from 180 ppm (parts per million) and 280 ppm which resulted in several changes in the environment.. In the grand scheme of Earth, these changes are miniscule and

Climate Change: Environmentalists and Global Warming

2365 words - 9 pages fluctuations, than to support that it is caused by greenhouse gases generated by humans. The Global Warming Debate encompasses one of the most complex systems in our natural world, the Earth’s atmosphere, so it is very important to understand the basics. In the book, The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change, climate is defined as “The climate of a place, a region, or the Earth as a whole, is the average over time of meteorological

Global Warming and Climate Change Speech

1360 words - 5 pages Katrina was a feeling that we have entered a period of consequences.” These consequences include the earth warming 2 to 3 degrees in the next century, arctic ice disappearing completely, and coastal flooding. III. Thesis – Climate change is an increasing worldwide problem. IV. Preview – Today, I am going to talk to you about climate change as a problem, the causes of it, and the effects it will have on our planet I. WHAT IS GLOBAL

Volcanic Eruptions and Global Climate Change

1562 words - 6 pages Volcanic Eruptions and Global Climate Change Abstract There has been much debate in recent decades over how much volcanic eruptions contribute to global climate change, the destruction of the ozone layer, and global warming. This electronic term paper deals with various sides of this debate. There will be a specific focus on the great nineteenth century eruptions of Tambora and Krakatoa. Table of Contents Introduction The Effects

Globalization and Transnational Corporations: Ethics and Global Climate Change

1058 words - 4 pages and the responsibilities to look after and try tackling some major environmental issues. An example of such would the Kyoto agreement. To show how globalization can mean global connectives. In 2001 when Bush withdrew US support from the Kyoto agreement they whole pact fell through, or so they thought. It was only the cooperation between the European Union, Russia and Japan that the protocol was put into full effect. Many nations swiftly ratified

global climate change war

1037 words - 5 pages for these reasons: he is neglecting current affairs with nuclear threats from North Korea, conflict between China/Japan, and he is putting the safety of the American people second to helping other countries from the threat of global climate change. According to Admiral Locklear, global climate change in the Pacific Ocean is a much more daunting threat to the U.S. military based in the Pacific, rather than other military threats. Locklear states

Global Climate Change

1413 words - 6 pages affected climate change are Coral reefs they are very sensitive to small temperature changes and the slight gains of PH in the water. The main sign that a coral reef is dyeing is that they will bleach, turn an off-white color. A survey of the coral reefs in 1998 showed some reefs had been 70% bleached[Global Warming Fast Facts]. Many people will point out how the weather seems to be getting worse. For example, there are more and forest fires

Solutions to the Global Climate Change

1416 words - 6 pages in the world (Greenhouse gases, Climate change, and energy). When this fuel is burned, it pollutes the atmosphere and increases the global warming process. What makes CO2 dangerous is the fact that it is nonrenewable and it warms the earth faster. CO2 emissions should be lowered because when the earth is warmed up this and other greenhouse gases increase the rate at which the polar ice caps melt, resulting in increasing sea levels and flooding

Similar Essays

Impacts Of Global Climate Change On Temperature And Precipitation Patterns In The Midwest And The Consequences For Soils

1859 words - 7 pages seasonal patterns will change. These changes in the regional climate will have drastic effects in all areas of the ecosystems. One of particular concern is the possible changes in soils. With a changing climate and atmosphere, the soils, as well as the vegetation, of the Midwest would have to adapt to the new conditions. Continuous Warming The most direct effect of the atmospheric changes will most likely be a worldwide increase in average

Potential And Challenges For Carbon Sequestration In Agricultural Soils

513 words - 2 pages Agriculture occupies a larger portion of global land area (about 35%) than any other human activity (Betts and Falloon, 2007). Agriculture soil stocks have been suggested as potential measure to sequester atmospheric CO2 to help stabilize its concentration in atmosphere and has been estimated that 0.4-0.9 Pg C year-1 can be sequestrated within global agricultural soils (Paustian et al., 1998). This has been supported by the fourth assessment

Economics Of Carbon Emissions And Climate Change

1263 words - 6 pages Economics of Carbon Emissions and Climate Change The economics of climate change is a very controversial and disputed. To even discuss what should be done economists have to either state whether or not global warming and climate change exist. According to the CATO article, Climate Change vs. Climate Models (Michaels and Knappenberger, 2013), “The models’ estimate of the increase in temperature resulting from a doubling of carbon dioxide

Global Warming And Climate Change Essay

2464 words - 10 pages large amounts of carbon dioxide.” (Global warming-wetlands) When the average temperature rises, soils will release a big amount of CO2 equal to almost 20 percent of the projected amount released by combustion of fossil fuels. Gas hydrates in the soil will decompose as well when the temperature rises. When the temperatures increases, frozen soil will melt and it would release gas hydrates, and hydrates from the ocean would then also break down