What Is Diabetes Melitus? Essay

1045 words - 5 pages

Diabetes Mellitus(DM)
• Is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar.
• An estimated 227 to 285 million people had diabetes in 2010, with type 2 making up about 90% of the cases. This is equal to 3.3% of the population with equal rates in both women and men. In 2011 it resulted in 1.4 million deaths worldwide making it the 8th leading cause of death.
• There are three types of Diabetes
• Type 1 – Insulin dependent, results from the body's failure to produce insulin. Also known as Juvenile diabetes.
• Type 2 – Insulin resistant, cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes also with an absolute insulin deficiency. Also known as Adult onset diabetes.
• Gestational diabetes - occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level.

• History of Diabetes
• Clinical features similar to diabetes mellitus were described 3000 years ago by the ancient Egyptians. The term "diabetes" was first coined by Araetus of Cappodocia.
• The word mellitus (honey sweet) was added by Thomas Willis (Britain) in 1675 after rediscovering the sweetness of urine and blood of patients (first noticed by the ancient Indians). And then confirmed In 1776 by Dobson (Britain).
• In 1857 Claude Bernard (France) discovered an important milestone in the history of diabetes, the establishment of the role of the liver in glycogenesis, and the concept that diabetes is due to excess glucose production.
• In 1889 Mering and Minkowski (Austria) discovered the role of the pancreas in pathogenesis of diabetes. Later in 1921, this discovery constituted the basis of insulin isolation and clinical use discovered by Banting and Best (Canada).
• In 1955, Trials to prepare an orally administrated hypoglycemic agent ended successfully by the first marketing of Tolbutamide and Carbutamide.

• Causes

• In type 1 diabetes - your immune system attacks and destroys your insulin-producing cells in the pancreas. This leaves you with little or no insulin. Sugar builds up in your bloodstream Instead of being transported into your cells. Type 1 is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors, although many of those factors are still unclear.
• In type 2 diabetes - your cells become resistant to the action of insulin, and your pancreas is unable to make enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Causing sugar to build up in your bloodstream instead of moving into your cells where it's needed for energy. Why this happens is uncertain, although like type 1 diabetes, it's believed that genetic and environmental factors play a role in the development of type 2 DM. Being overweight is strongly linked to the development of type 2 diabetes, but not everyone with type 2 is overweight.
• Gestational diabetes - The placenta produces hormones to sustain your pregnancy. These hormones make your cells more resistant to insulin. As your placenta grows larger in the second and third trimesters, it...

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