What Is Motivation? Essay

1108 words - 4 pages

What is motivation?'The processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction, and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal.' Motivation is usually labelled as a personal trait but that is not true since every individual has motivation. However, people have different needs and different interests, which motivate them, (a sports celebrity could find difficulty in reading a journal about medicine in hour but find it less difficult to read a whole stack of sports magazines in the same amount of time).There are a number of different theories of motivation ranging from the early theories to the contemporary, examples of the earlier theories are Herzberg's and Maslow's theories, and the contemporary examples are ERG and McClelland's.Abraham Maslow's theory was better known as the Hierarchy of needs. He hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five needs and as each of these needs are met the next need becomes paramount. They are:1Physiological: Includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex, and other bodily needs.2Safety: Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm.3Social: Includes affection, belongingness, acceptance, and friendship.4Esteem: Includes internal esteem factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; and external esteem factors as status, recognition, and attention.5Self-Actualisation: The drive to become what one is capable of becoming; self-fulfilment.Over recent years Maslow's theory was modified to align more closely with that there are three core groups instead of five that Maslow had originally came up with. The three groups are existence, relatedness, and growth.1Existence: Is our basic material existence requirements2Relatedness: The desire for interpersonal relationships, for this desire to be satisfied inter-action with others is required3Growth: A fundamental desire for self improvementIn ways does Maslow's theory differ from Alderfer apart from changing from five to three needs it differs:1More than one need may be functioning at the same time2If the fulfilment of a superior level need is subdued, the desire to satisfy a lower level need is increasedIn summary, ERG theory argues like Maslow's that satisfied lower order needs head to the desire to satisfy higher order needs; but multiple needs can be functioning as motivators at the same time and frustration in attempting to satisfy a higher level need can result in decay to a lower level need.Organisations hire people on there skills (qualifications), then put in a job is put where they are paid by there job title not on there skill they have achieved for example a secretary who has no degree compared to another who has a PHD. Which leads to less motivation of the latter because of the skill degree that the latter has accomplished and wasted years of he life doing. But if organisations hired people on ability to perform certain jobs they would lead to more motivation since they will be performing specific...

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