“The intensive care unit (ICU) often is called the epicenter of infections, due to its extremely vulnerable population (reduced host defences deregulating the immune responses) and increased risk of becoming infected through multiple procedures and use of invasive devices distorting the anatomical integrity-protective barriers of patients (intubation, mechanical ventilation, vascular access, etc.)” (Brusselaers,Vogelaers, & Blot, 2011). The purpose of this paper is to develop a research question regarding the prevention of spreading bacteria in ICU and to identify databases and search words to collect data by using the continuum of data, information, knowledge, and wisdom . Also, I will describe how informatics can be used to gain wisdom.
Clinical Research Question and Metastructures: Data, Information, Knowledge, and Wisdom
The key to conducting successful clinical research involves five steps. These steps are: “asking answerable clinical questions, searching for the evidence, critically appraising the evidence for its validity and relevance, making a decision by integrating the evidence with your clinical expertise and the patient’s values, and evaluating your performance” (Heneghan, & Badenoch, 2006, p.2). To develop my research question I used the evidence- based model PICO. PICO stands for: P ( Problem: high infection rate by the spread of bacteria in ICU), I (Intervention: hand washing with soap and water or the use of hand sanitizer), C (Comparison: the use of gloves, gown, mask), O (Outcome: reduction of infection due to the spread of bacteria). With these elements as refrence I formulated the question: Is the use of soap and water or alcohol-based rubs more effective than the use of protective gear (gloves, mask, gown) in preventing the spread of bacteria/ infection in Critical Care Units?
In order to search, gather, and analize information obtained from reasearch that back up my question, I first deviced a plan demonstrates the relationship of data, information, knowledge and wisdom. According to McGonigle and Garver (2012), “data are discreate entities described objectively without interpertation” ( p. 97). The fist step in the plan is to gather data from the internet databases and related books and journals. This data obtained will not be interpreted but will be group together inorder to continue to the second step of the plan; obtaining relevant information about my research question. “ Information is data that are interpreted, organized, or structured” (McGonigle & Garver, 2012, p.97). This step requires precise interpretation and analization of the data was obtained. The information will be organized and structured into each of the PICO variables. McGonigle and Garver (2012), describe knowledge as “information that is synthezized so that relationships are identified and formalized” (p.97). It is important to use this concept when making the decisions of which of the information will be used and what the potential...