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What Is Rickettsia. Essay

857 words - 3 pages

What Is Rickettsia?Rickettsia are bacteria, which are obligate intracellular parasites many disease-causing, that live in vertebrates and are transmitted by bloodsucking parasitic arthropods such as fleas , lice and ticks. Rickettsias are named after their discoverer, the American pathologist Harold Taylor Ricketts, who died of typhus in Mexico after confirming the infectious agent of that rickettsial disease.Rickettsias unlike other bacteria, but like viruses, they require a living host (a living cell) to survive. Rickettsias from infected vertebrates, usually mammals, live and multiply in the gastrointestinal tract of an arthropod carrier but do not cause disease there; they are transmitted to another vertebrate, possibly one of another species, by the arthropod's mouthparts or faeces.The cells are extremely small (0.25 um in diameter) rod-shaped, cocci and often pleomorphic microorganisms which have typical bacterial cell walls, no flagella (except for Rickettsiae prowazekii), are gram-negative and multiply via binary fission only inside host cells. They occur singly, in pairs, or in strands.Rickettsia and its DiseasesOrganism and diseasesRickettsiaspecies Disease Natural cycleb Geographic distributionVectors HostsTyphus group:Rickettsia prowazekii Epidemic typhus Human body liceHumans WorldwideRecrudescent typhus None Humans WorldwideLice, fleas Flying squirrels Eastern USAR. typhi Murine typhus Fleas Rodents WorldwideFleas Opossums USAR. felis Murine typhus like Fleas Opossums USASpotted Fever group:R. rickettsiae Rocky Mountain spotted fever Ticks Small mammals, dogs, rabbits, birdsNorth & South AmericaR. conorii Boutonneuse fever Ticks Rodents, dogs Africa, Southern Europe, IndiaR. sibirica North Asia tick typhusTicks Rodents Eurasia, AsiaR. japonica Japanese spotted fever TicksRodents, dogs JapanR. australis Queensland tick typhus Ticks Rodents AustraliaR. akari Rickettsialpox Mites House mice, rats WorldwideEhrlichioses group:Ehrlichia chaffeensis Human monocytic ehrlichiosis TicksHumans, deer USA, EuropeEhrlichia Sp Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis Ticks Humans, deer, rodentsUSA, EuropeOthers:Coxiella burnetiiQ feverTicksSmall mammals, sheep, goats, cattle, dogs WorldwideOrientia tsutsugamushiScrub typhusMitesRodentsAsia, Indian subcontinent, AustraliaHistory and FactsMost species are found only in the cytoplasm of host cells, but those which cause spotted fevers multiply in nuclei as well as in cytoplasm. In the laboratory, they may be cultivated in living tissues such as embrocated chicken eggs or vertebrate cell cultures.Focus is normally put on the vertebrate host, while the arthropod vector is often more important in the natural maintenance of the pathogen. Consequently, co-evolution of rickettsiae with arthropods is responsible for many features of the host-pathogen relationship that are unique among arthropod-borne diseases, including efficient pathogen replication, long-term maintenance of infection, to name a few.Rickettsial...

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