This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

What Is The Difference Between Ethnic Identity And National Identity?

1556 words - 7 pages

After the independence, most Malays continued to live in rural areas, working as farmers, fishermen or rubber smallholders, while the ethnic-Chinese mostly resided in urban areas, engaging in trade and commerce, while ethnic-Indians were mainly rubber estate workers or professionals. Even people belonging to the same class, as working-class Chinese and Malays, did not have a common political representation as class in itself. This established a vertical ethnic connection among the communities, in which their members felt closer to people from the same ethnie than people from the same social class. (Yeoh, 2008)
The Bumiputra is the official collective term that groups together Malay, as well ...view middle of the document...

(Liew, 2003) Currently, the Bumiputera represents 65% of the population of Malaysia, while Chinese are 26% and Indians 8%. While the three groups are not geographically divided, they remain separated by language, religion, customs, education, areas of residence and type of occupation. (Yeoh, 2008) According to a poll conducted on Malaysian students, ethnic-Chinese tend to have a higher national identity, while Malay students still strongly identify themselves with their ethnic belonging. While no tendency to represent the history of their country in terms of group ontogeny was found, it is safe to assume that Malays are likely to support official governmental policies in their favour. (Liu et al, 2002)
The main problem seems to be identifying which divisions in Malaysia are ethnic-based and which are class-based. Policies favouring the Bumiputra would still go to the majority’s favour were they class-based instead of ethnicity-based, since Malays still make up the majority of low-income people. Overriding the historical identification of class with ethnicity, though, would probably undermine a political leadership largely based on ethnic divisions. (Yeoh, 2008) Now in Malaysia the most acute interethnic conflict occurs between the bourgeoisie in the competition over educational, employment, business and facilities opportunities. Some contend that the ethnically biased role of the Malaysian state, “deemed necessary to eliminate the ethnic division of labour as a source of ethnic conflict” in turn further intensified racial contention. (2008:89) Enunciating his “vision 2020” on the future of Malaysia, former prime minister Dr Mahatir accommodated non-Malays in his will for a Bangsa Malaysia, a unified nation. Ensuing debates showed that ethnic-Chinese were more likely to accept the vision had the differences between Bumiputra and non-Bumiputra eradicated. Malays, however, still do not seem willing to give up their privileges. In the making of the Malaysian nation-state, interests of ethnicity and religion will always play an important shaping role. (Kheng, 2002)

Singapore was founded as a British trading post in 1819, and as its economy thrived it attracted immigrants of mainly Chinese, Malay and Indian origin. It was granted internal self-government in 1959, when Lee Kwan Yew’s People’s Action Party gained power through democratic elections. Singapore briefly joined the Malayan Federation in 1963, but disagreements between Lee and Tunku, the general wariness of Malays towards the ethnic Chinese and the refusal from the part of Lee of granting ethnic Malays in Singapore the same privileges they enjoyed in Malaysia, brought to its separation in 1965. (Liu et al, 2002)
Upon independence, Singapore had to find a reason to exist as a nation: largely of immigrant stock, it was difficult even to create a discourse on a “Singaporean identity”, for lack of common descent and kinship myths. There was no tradition or governmental structure which...

Find Another Essay On What is the difference between ethnic identity and national identity?

Ethnic Identity Essay

1412 words - 6 pages What is Ethnic identity formation? Defining identity formation Identity formation is a process that is continuously developing and changing. Erikson (1968) describes identity formation as a product of the interrelations between the individual and the context the individual is in. When a person develops an identity it means they are forming that connection between themselves and aspects of society. How identities are formed is an ever changing

Ethnic Identity Essay

1753 words - 7 pages Teachers and administrators that strive to increase motivation and academic success in their students have to become of aware that their student body is becoming more diverse and so many aspects of the school’s culture must be changed. Many schools have alienated their students that come from different ethnic backgrounds by failing to make that connection between self-identity and school identity. There are many different strategies that can be

Ethnic Identity

1525 words - 7 pages The relationship between racial-ethnic identity and academic success and motivation can also be seen when studying gifted African American students. It is crucial to point out that much research has not been conducted on gifted African American students and the link between academic motivation and academic success. However, one issue that has been noted in the few studies is that African American students are caught between two worlds. They are

The Relationship Between National Identity and State-building

1750 words - 7 pages cricket world cup; but the vast majority of Indians who are in the urban middle class will not easily admit the concept of ‘swadesi’, when they can easily afford the products manufactured abroad, which is certainly contrary as compared to the involvement and efforts of the people at the time of the independence struggle. From the above discussion on Indian example, there appears to be positive relationship between national identity among the people

National Identity and the Consumer

1039 words - 4 pages difference between the two terms can be distinguished by an individual who is very patriotic (loves one's country) yet possesses weaker nationalism (does not glorify his country above other countries). Current literature has accounted for countries where citizens are presented with two different national identities, for their state and for their nation. For these countries, literature has proposed that there exists a continuum representing a

Ethnic Identity and African Americans

870 words - 3 pages to an individuals psychological relatedness to groups (Smith 1991). These reference groups help adolescents sense, reflect and see things from the point of their ethnic groups in which they actively participate or seek to participate. What is ethnic identity? The establishment of identity is an important, complex task for all adolescents, and is considered a major developmental task for all adolescents. It is particularly complicated for

National and European Identity

1717 words - 7 pages Scholars of the European Union (EU) have a strong interest in the concept of European Union identity (Cram, 2009). The ‘European union’ identity can be identified nowadays, although there are still conflicts between national identities and a shared European identity which can be illustrated by the data from Eurobarameter and other sources. Most people perceive themselves as Europeans, as Anderson (1991) state, there is no contradictory between

National Identity

1704 words - 7 pages . Architecture has evolved into a single, modern aesthetic. It is sometimes hard to see where the unique national features and mentalities lie in these buildings, especially with the increased and ever flourishing collaboration internationally. The questions to be asked are what remains of national styles today and how did we get here? What is of a particular interest is how “British” architecture has abandoned its national identity. Erased are

National Identity

2123 words - 9 pages resurged and contributed to the final dislocation of the empire (Unit 18, p. 72). In short, a growing sense of national identity can be observed in all decolonisation processes, influencing the pace of the process by helping to mobilise forces against imperial rule – but it must also be noted that national identity is also the consequence of the struggle. Furthermore, it has a significant impact on the outcome of the process, favouring the emergence of

Ethnic Identity and the Maintenance of Heritage Languages

4082 words - 16 pages Mandarin is useless.” For Steve, his ethnic and linguistic identity seems directly formed from Cantonese, which he distinguished very clearly from Mandarin, the official dialect of China. As he explained, “The language is mostly what Cantonese is about/is what defines Cantonese people,” and, “You can’t say the same thing in Mandarin; it doesn’t come out the same.” When asked about the future, Steve noted that he felt an obligation to

Racial / Ethnic Identity

697 words - 3 pages . Conclusion My overall identity, not just my racial / ethnic identity, is constantly evolving. What I believe today may not be the same thing I believe tomorrow. I hope that as it changes I will be able to make it better. It is doubtful that I will encounter anyone who identifies the same as I do. We are all different and have had different experiences that make up who we are. Being able to effectively deal with other people in our professional

Similar Essays

What Are Korea Culture And Ethnic Identity

612 words - 3 pages The world has been developing, changing, and globalizing. Of course, Korean culture also has been developing, changing, and globalizing naturally by accepting new foreign culture. New culture is even formed in Korea. However, some of Korean culture are maintained. People who have an ethnic identity try to maintain their conventional culture. Then, what are their culture and ethnic identity which Koreans try to conserve? It is Courtesy

The Difference Between Gender Identity And Gender Role

1597 words - 6 pages difference in gender identity, how you see yourself and gender roles, how you are seen socially. There can be many complications with what your sexuality is or even your gender role but there are things like diseases that we learn about that can hinder our choices or reproductive decisions. Thanks to the contribution of Havelock Ellis, a physician who studied eroticism, Alfred Kinsey, interested in biology, studied same-sex behavior and William

The Choice: Ethnic Identity Essay

1226 words - 5 pages April and her friends, “identity is not a matter of where you come from, what you were born into, what color your skin is, [but] what you wear, the music you listen to, the words you use-everything to which you pledge allegiance, no matter how fleetingly” ( 563). April knows that she is white, but she has realized that her race does not determine her ethnic identity. She and her friends don’t meet the expected social mannerisms associated with

Ethnic Identity Essay 2529 Words

2529 words - 11 pages in both groups. These results indicate a clear difference between two individual subgroups in regards to the strength and arguably the importance of ethnic to individuals in the subgroup and subsequently the level of their self-esteem as reflected by ethnic identity. As focus on specific Hispanic subgroups is still a relatively new direction for this subject matter, further research needs to be conducted not only on specific subgroups, but