What Judgement Should Be Made About The Success Of Political And Economic Transition In Central And Eastern Europe?

2716 words - 11 pages

There has been of course many changes since 1989. To understand this we should analyze how the situation before the revolution. Before 1989 there was no political freedom. There were elections, but there was only one candidate, down from the city councils up to the MPs, all of them were nominated by an almighty party. The most powerful man was not president, neither Prime minister, but the leader of the party. He was also responsible to the leader of the party in USSR. There was no freedom of religion; every priest had to be issued a special admission to work as one. The Bishops were nominated, the orders were denied. People were not allowed to travel. They had to be permitted to travel abroad. For most of the people it was impossible to go to West Europe or Australia (not mentioning USA). The media was also controlled. So were the books. Only someone could study university or do some jobs. In Czechoslovakia, after 1968 many professors were kicked from universities and were given jobs in factories or so. Also there was the end of enterprise, a lot of poverty and the crushing of free thought.All this have changed. After the wall of Berlin and the collapse of Communism there was a change in the lives of the people of central and Eastern Europe. There was also a change also in the political and economic systems which I am going to analyze in this essay.The revolution of 1989 was extremely peaceful ,with the exception of Romania where President Ceausescu and his wife were shot, the old unpopular regimes were swept away without the use of excessive violence. However after this bloodless revolution things were becoming more tense. Such examples are most of the Balkans, chunks of ex-Soviet Central Asia and also the Southern part of Russia itself including Chechnya. However central Europe has remained peaceful since 1989.The worst violence in this region was because of the ethnic problem. Russia has had its problems with its multi-ethnic population (like Chechnya). However the worst tragedy was Yugoslavia's break up and the war in Bosnia. The massacre of around 7,000 Muslims by the Serbs was such example of horror seen after 1989. The conflict in Kosovo gave NATO its first time to participate directly since it was created for defense against the Soviet Union.Some 27 countries ( with the exception of Montenegro leaving Yugoslavia, Kosovo and Chechnya) have emerged out of the 8 in the Communist era. Most of these 28 countries are nowadays looking west and also want to join the EU and be part of Europe. The iron curtain which crossed Europe into two-capitalist and communist is no longer existent. Countries like Poland, Czech Republic and Hungary have moved westwards and in 2004 are becoming members of the European Union. Estonia, the most Northern ex Communist state has integrated with the Nordic countries. Moldova may one day join Romania. Latvia and Slovakia however were more pulled towards Russia but a new liberal coalition in Slovakia put again the...


How important was the emergence of civil society in Central and Eastern Europe in the early 1980s for the collapse of communist regimes in 1989? Compare and contrast the Polish and Romanian cases

2967 words - 12 pages , political repression raised many types o resistance. Many of them involved a social activities against political police and giving secret lectures about democracy and proving that Communism is wrong especially in the Soviet version. Finally, in 1956 history witnessed first uprisings in the Central and Eastern Europe, more specifically in Poland and Hungary. The intellectual critique gave way to protest from below as workers challenged the harsh rules

Weimar Republic's Success in Dealing With Economic and Political Problems

2251 words - 9 pages Weimar Republic's Success in Dealing With Economic and Political Problems When the Republic was first 'born' in 1919 they faced a huge amount of problems - both internal and external. Not only did they have a remarkably unstable government, but also faced threats from both the left and the right. Furthermore to this their economic problems were extremely acute. Historians such as Stephen Lee believe that the government

Why was Central Eastern Europe created after World War One?

1618 words - 6 pages One of the reasons for recreating Central Eastern Europe after World War One was the policy of self-determination, which was put forward and fiercely supported by an American president, Woodrow Wilson, who also had very democratic ideas. He, as well as the other peacemakers argued that people who thought of themselves as a nation should form a single state. For example, Poles should live in a country called Poland, which should be governed by

Should Compulsory Voting be Made Compulsory to Encourage Political Participation?

1753 words - 8 pages Though we live in a democratic society, there are a large number of people who remain politically disengaged. Should voting be made compulsory in order to encourage political participation? Compulsory voting has the potential to increase participation and also encourage political engagement. There are many positive things that are produced after enacting compulsory voting according to Eric Lund “in Western democracies demographically and

The extent to which a Central Bank should have both goal and instrument independence and examine the possible implication of this on achievement of the macro-economic objectives

2118 words - 8 pages In this essay I will investigate to what extent a Central Bank should have both goal and instrument independence followed by an examination of the possible implications this could have on the macro-economic objectives. A Central Bank has several functions; these include the issue of national currency, to act as banker to both government and private banks, and to oversee the financial system. Central Banks also administer national monetary policy

Considering the history of Vietnam before 1961, the U.S. should not have made the military and political commitment to defend Diem and South Vietnam

744 words - 3 pages Vietnamese that longed for their independence from France. During World War I, he traveled to Europe and lobbied for the sake of his country. After no success in Europe, Ho Chi Minh spent many years in the Soviet Union and China, countries where colonialism was significantly denounced. Meanwhile, the French were slaughtering the people of Vietnam, killing 10,000 people and deporting 50,000 more after a peasant rebellion in Vietnam. (American Foreign

What can be learnt from the Acts of the Apostles about life and society in the cities of the Eastern Mediterranean in the 1st century A.D?

2406 words - 10 pages comment; "Such a view...is itself unnecessary" . These Historians, (excluding D.W.J Gill) believe that the writings within Acts could be made up of false events because the book was written after the time in which it was concerned. On the contrary, R.Banks argues that "one will regard the work as a contemporary treatment of events" . This claim has been backed up with such archaeological evidence as William Ramsay's excavations at Jerusalem and Avner

"The turbulent truth about Political Geography in Europe" - A history of Political Geography and Trends in Europe between 1871 and 1996

690 words - 3 pages German Empire was seized back, temporarily. At the end of the Second World War, East Germany made its exit and entrance, into communist annexation with the U.S.S.R.By 1983, to a degree the geography of Europe had calmed down a bit. However, what replaced world war incurred a new battle, in the Middle East. In 1948, Israel was created, out of what was once so long ago the Ottoman Empire. It ushered in with it a new sentiment to people; Autonomy

The production and sale of cigarettes should be made illegal

1155 words - 5 pages that everybody has to have the right of buy and smoke cigarettes. Because smoking is horrible for your health, do not has any benefits and the most important non-smokers people can be more affected than the smokers the production and sale of cigarettes should be made illegal. But why is this so controversial? Smokers can’t live without cigarettes because they became addicted to this bad habit. They don’t think in the risk of get a cancer or

What are the Social, Political, and Economic Impacts of Industrialization?

687 words - 3 pages the average people from fighting for their rights. New political ideas came about and the United States turned upside down into a whole new era. America’s large abundance of natural and human resources is what enabled the nation to develop so greatly in such a short amount of time. During the nations metamorphosis into the worlds industrial leader, the gross national product became eight times greater than after the civil war. New inventions

The aftermath of Socialism in Eastern Europe

2354 words - 10 pages free market in the Soviet Union. These attempts proved to fail the economy that was largely strained by the cold war. In order to revive the economy, various strategies were proposed for restructuring the economic, political and social aspects of the region (Jue, 2002). Socialism failed in Eastern Europe because the empire was too expensive to maintain. This made the Soviet Union pull out since the system was unmanageable. The exhaustion of

Similar Essays

Exploring The Political, Social, And Economic Factors That Helped Communists To Rule In East Central Europe After 1944

920 words - 4 pages were not trying to establish dictatorship but democracy for the people. Yet while it should have a facade of egalitarianism, the communists had everything in their control. On this note, it can be assumed that the creation of the Iron Curtain that sought to strengthen alliance among territories in the East-Central Europe was only a part of the plot to extend communism overseas. The agreement made by Stalin and Churchill was supposed to conclude

Political And Economic Integration In Europe

631 words - 3 pages Following the multi-national crisis of World War II, Europe, as a whole, suffered from economic and political instability. Beginning with the creation of the Council of Europe in 1949, Europe began a process of political and economic integration, ultimately leading to the creation of the European Union. Europe’s economies became more closely tied due to the European Coal and Steel Community and the Treaty of Rome, which lead to The Economic

Economic Success And Political Influence Of The Fuggers And Medicis

1230 words - 5 pages In the late fifteenth, and early sixteenth centuries the first economic Golden Age began. Two families, the Fugger's and Medici's were of immense wealth and power. Both helped to finance projects for certain people and institutions of power, like the Pope, English Monarchy and the Holy Roman Empire. Their economic success and political influence caused much turmoil then, and even more in the future. Because of the Fuggers' and Medici's wealth

Comparing And Contrasting The Social & Economic Systems Of Western And Eastern Europe

1710 words - 7 pages East European economy in context: communism and transition, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-08626-4 7. Frucht, Richard C. (2003), Encyclopedia of Eastern Europe: From the Congress of Vienna to the Fall of Communism, Taylor & Francis Group, ISBN 978-0-203-80109-3 8. The Aftermath of the Second World War." The Aftermath of the Second World War. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2014. 9. On the Economic Organization of Eastern Europe A. A. L. Caesar