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What Role Do Glia Cells Play In The Neural Functioning?

1246 words - 5 pages

The nervous system include two main types of cells the neuron and the Glia cells. The nervous system are organised into two different parts, the central nervous system constituted with spinal cord and brain, and the periphery nervous system is dived into two branch's: the somatic nervous system (have three kinds of neuron: sensory neuron or receptor neuron gather the outside information such as sound, waves, odours, and tastes, the medium neuron or inter neuron which tie the sensitive neuron and the motor neuron, the motor neuron or effectors neuron control the contraction of the muscles) and the autonomic nervous system(are responsible to control glandules and involuntary activities in the body such as rhythm cardiac). So the neurons are special cells that are capable to receive stimuli messages and transferring those stimuli for responses. The function of the neuron is to transmit message and these messages are in form of electrical impulses. The Central nervous system provides the quickest means of communication and is connected with the peripheral nerves, which link the central nervous system with the body's receptors and effectors. The peripheral nerves receive changes in the external and internal environments; stored by the receptors, to the central nervous system that integrates the information it receives and sends appropriate messages, again via the peripheral nerves to the effectors that respond accordingly [Carlson R.1995]. For that reason the neurons is the functional unit of the nervous system they have four structures. Soma or cell body contains the nucleus and much of the machinery such as mitochondria. Dendrites, organs that receive the information from another cell and transmit message to the cell body. Axon is a long slender tube wrapped in a myelin sheath produced by support cells, (Glia cells - Schwann cell and oligodendrocytes) which conduct the message during action potential away from the cell body. The myelin sheath is interrupted at approximately one-millimetre intervals by constriction called node of Ranvier. And finally the Terminal buttons situated at the end of the Axon branch, they secret a chemical substance called neurotransmitter and these substance travel to another neuron affecting them, the travelling is done in a small gap between the neurons, called synapse cleft [Carlson R.1994].The information is carried by the Axon from the cell body to the terminal button of the neuron through action potential, producing hyper polarization in the membrane cell of the axon, that is, the outside of the membrane cell becomes negative and the inside becomes positive. This process occur when the neuron are excited, if not is called resting potential and the membrane cell of the axon is depolarised it means that the inside of the membrane have negative ions (anions) and the outside have the positive ions (cautions) [Gouveia & Sousa 1996]. Therefore the action potential is cause by a balance of two forces: diffusion forces,...

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