Discuss the issues related to genetic diversity: mutations, sexual reproduction, migration, and population size
Genetic diversity ids defined as the diversity or genetic variability within species. Every species possesses genes which are the source of its own unique features. In human beings, for example, each person's genetic individuality is reflected by the huge variety of people's faces. The term genetic diversity also involves distinct populations of a single species, for example the thousands of breeds of different cats or dogs or the numerous variety of mangoes. The significance of Genetic Diversity is important as it helps in maintaining the gene pool. An individual or a whole population's ability to tolerate stress from any given environmental factor is defined by the huge variety of gene sets.
Genetic Diversity and mutation:
Mutations are defined as changes in the genetic sequence. Mutations are main cause of diversity among organisms. Because these changes occur at many different levels, and they can cause widely differing consequences. In order for mutations to affect an organism's descendants, these mutations must: 1) occur in cells that produce the next generation, and 2) also these changes should affect the hereditary material. Finally, the interactions between environmental pressures and inherited mutations generates diversity among species.
A single mutation can cause a large effect,. The basis of genetic diversity is the accumulation of many mutations with small effects. These mutational effects can be harmful, beneficial, or neutral, depending on their location or context. Usually non-neutral mutations are deleterious. In fact, the more base pairs that are affected by a mutation will cause the larger effect and the larger the mutation's probability of being deleterious.
Genetic Diversity and Sexual Reproduction:
Sexual reproduction involves two partners of opposite sex, each contributing one gamete. Gametes are produced by a process called meiosis which starts by the duplication of the chromosomes, followed by two cycles of cell divisions and halving of the chromosome number. Gametes have half the number of chromosome of other adult cells of an organism. Meiosis consists of a reduction division and an equational division. Gametes ...