What Is The Relationship Between The Formation Of A Modern Chinese Identity And The War Of Resistance Against Japan?

2118 words - 8 pages

From September 18th, 1931, the date of undeclared Japanese invasion into Manchuria, to August 14th, 1945 marking the end of the War of Resistance, China experienced unprecedented suffering and loss in its struggle for survival. Throughout this time, social, economic, and political conditions underwent severe changes. In the eyes of the world, the Japanese committed sins beyond repentance, and half a century later, no development is evident in this respect. Yet, the War of Resistance gave rise to an invaluable aspect of Chinese culture that defines the nation today. Dr. Sun Yat Sen talked of a nation divided, four hundred million people who shared customs, habits and race, but could not advance in the face of the international world without one truly essential attribute “...in the world today what position do we occupy?... we should … be advancing in the front rank with the nations of Europe and America. But the Chinese people have only family and clan solidarity; they do not have national spirit. Therefore even though we have four hundred million people gathered together in one China, in reality they are just a heap of loose sand.” (Tamura, 1998, pp.148). It was the Opium Wars, where Western technological development exposed China's military weakness and the subsequent broken treaties of 1922 and 1928, when China’s Western allies failed to intervene in Japan's invasion of Manchuria in September 1931 (Lin, 1936, pp.368) that forced the issue of “nationalism” on China during latter half of the 19th century.
In the decades following the humiliation suffered at the hands of the ‘barbarians’ during the Opium wars, influential and progressive thinkers such as Feng Guifen and Zou Rong, among others, threw themselves passionately into the revolution and founded ideas and practices to ensure the wellbeing of the general populace giving rise to a surge of new ideas on the subject of national salvation to strengthen national unity, survival and independence. Ideas such as “Subjugation spells destruction of the nation” and “Learn the superior techniques of the barbarians to control the barbarians” eventually led to the slogan 体用 tǐ yong short for “中学为体、西学为用” zhongxue wei ti, xixue wei yong 'Chinese learning for the essence and Western learning for utility' (Spence, 2013, pp. 226).
The subsequent broken treaties of 1922, which guaranteed China's political and territorial integrity, and the Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928, outlawing war (Hsü, 2000, pp.547) when China’s Western allies failed to intervene in Japan's invasion of Manchuria (Lin, 1936, pp.368), once again forced the issue of “nationalism” and self reliance on China. However, it was the force itself of Japan's 'Asiatic Mission', that a spirit of Chinese unity was truly forged. Japanese exploitation of China, Chiang Kai-shek' s protection of the Japanese and finally the proposition of a United Front are events which illustrate how a nation became coloured by hatred for the Japanese, and this in turn...

Find Another Essay On What is the Relationship Between the Formation of a Modern Chinese Identity and the War of Resistance Against Japan?

The Relationship Between National Identity and State-building

1750 words - 7 pages a geographic boundary and heterogeneous mixture of people from diverse groups. However, the purpose of this essay is not to define these concepts, but to understand if there is any relationship between people identifying themselves as belonging to one particular nation and whether this identification conduces the development of that nation. For the purpose of this essay, I would like to consider State building in terms of socioeconomic

The Changing Relationship Between Individual and Society in Modern Drama

4379 words - 18 pages , however, need not necessarily follow the current sways of politics or the en vogue intellectuals, they write what they believe is the most valuable message to mankind; theirs is the role of observing, criticising and evaluating. A common theme visited by playwrights in modern drama, was the question of the relationship between the individual, and the society in which he lived. The Norwegian playwright, Henrik Ibsen, who wrote in the last half of

The Relationship Between Resistance, Potential Difference and Current in an Electric Circuit

3065 words - 13 pages been derived and all milliAmpere have been converted to Ampere to satisfy the formulae. Graphical Representation of Data: Potential Difference (V) Interpretation of graph: In the graph we can see that there is a general increasing slope, meaning that there is a clear trend in the relationship between potential difference and current strength. Hence, we can see that potential difference is directly proportional to current strength and as

The Relationship Between Native American and Modern Medicine, As Explained "Native American Medicine"

639 words - 3 pages The article "Native American Medicine," adapted from article appearing in Paraplegia News, June 2004 for academic purposes, explains that the Native American Medicine, it's beliefs, its origin, and what its difficulties from its appearing until now. While the article appears to be objective, offering the relationship between Native American medicine and Western modern medicine, in the end of the article seem to show more differences to give

Relationship Between Modern Humans and Neanderthal

1904 words - 8 pages their relationship with modern humans have been fiercely debated between anthropologists. But what attracts most interest from scientists and popular media is the possibility of hybridization between Neanderthals and modern humans if, in other words, they were a genetically different specie or a single specie capable of producing offspring. The first morphological features that later would become typical of Neanderthals, the projecting middle

What is the Effect of Single Parent Households on Unhealthy Relationship Formation?

935 words - 4 pages family, more specifically the cost-benefit analysis involving the two parents when it is time to decide whether or not to separate. If the costs of the relationship between the parents outweigh the benefits that involve both parents and the child, it would be in the best interest of the whole family if the parents were to split. Thus, parents will remain married when the benefits of the marriage for the whole family are at a maximum. Based on

What is the difference between ethnic identity and national identity?

1556 words - 7 pages hinders social interaction, thus creating stereotypes and prejudices which tend to put one ethnic group against the other. (Liew, 2003) Currently, the Bumiputera represents 65% of the population of Malaysia, while Chinese are 26% and Indians 8%. While the three groups are not geographically divided, they remain separated by language, religion, customs, education, areas of residence and type of occupation. (Yeoh, 2008) According to a poll

Comparison between the standards of living between Japan and Canada. Japan is better

615 words - 2 pages better quality of livingHaving good heath care would mean the country has to have a good income to pay for it. Canada's average income is $30 562, while Japan's is $330 651. Having a higher income means you'll make more money at your job and not have to risk poverty. Also the literacy rate is higher in Japan (99%) then in Canada (97%). Meaning Japan has a better education then Canada does. An education is what helps to find a job which helps to

The Role of Facebook in Identity Formation

2007 words - 8 pages understand that the approach to self and identity originates from the theory that there is a mutual relationship between the self and society (Stryker, 1980). The self impacts society through individuals’ actions thus creating groups, organizations, networks and institutions. Reciprocally, society affects the self with its communal language and meanings that permit a person to take the role of the other, participate in social interaction and self

Similarities between Protagonists in Rebellion against Family and Search for Identity

1302 words - 5 pages she ever looks inside and see what she is not” (O’Connor 191). Joy-Hulga often speaks rudely to Mrs. Hopewell, and her actions are indecorous at times. Furthermore, because Joy-Hulga is an atheist she will not allow her mother to keep a Bible in the parlor, it is kept in the attic. Joy-Hulga “hates the complacency of her mother, and the environment in which she lives” (McCarthy 1146). Whereas, Dee-Wangero is not proud of her “share cropping

What were the problems caused by Japan because of Manchuria, especially between China and Japan, and what were the influences?

1638 words - 7 pages Chinese web sites describe what Japan did with anger. This part of the history deeply humiliated all the Chinese people. Following is an example from an English web site, which doesn't seem that furious but explains very well. "Between 1925 and 1928, Chinese nationalists under the banner of the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) had begun to unite all of China's far-flung regions under a Kuomintang Nationalist government. Japan's militarists feared

Similar Essays

India And Pakistan: A Modern History Of The Antagonistic Relationship Between Nuclear Neighbors And What It Could Mean For The Future Of The Free World

3218 words - 13 pages The conflict between India and Pakistan has been going on since their partition in 1947. With the recent developments in both countries' nuclear arsenals as well as the increase in insurgent movements in the disputed territory of Kashmir, it has now escalated to a point where the security of not only South Asia but also the entire world is threatened. The United States' lack of credibility in the region has seriously infringed upon their ability

The Relationship Between Sport And Identity

1415 words - 6 pages Sport and identity together have a unique relationship in which any regional or national place can use sport as a means to create a sense of identity. The relationship is complex and varied. Identity can be explained as understanding what or who a person or a thing is. Sport is capable of creating a feeling of nationhood and this is an important factor. It is important too for a nation to create a sense of identity but it is especially

The River Flows On: Black Resistance, Culture, And Identity Formation In Early America

1146 words - 5 pages slavery has produced one of the richest and most varied historiographies in all of American history. Walter Rucker’s The River Flows On: Black Resistance, Culture, and Identity Formation in Early America’s unique contribution to this existing literature, in my opinion, means it should be widely read by scholars and students alike. The River Flows On: Black Resistance, Culture and Identity Formation in Early America is a fascinating consideration

Commentary On David Brandenberger´S National Bolshevism Stalinist Mass Culture And The Formation Of Modern Russian National Identity

1673 words - 7 pages NATIONAL BOLSHEVISM STALINIST MASS CULTURE AND THE FORMATION OF MODERN RUSSIAN NATIONAL IDENTITY, 1931-1956 DAVID BRANDENBERGER In the beginning of this book of the history of the Russian people, we find that most Russian’s had no real identity of who they were or from where they descended. (P.11) They were just a people simply trying to make a living for their families not really caring where they came from or most important where the