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What´S Urinary Incontinence Essay

1182 words - 5 pages

Urinary incontinence is a loss of bladder control or control over urination that is significant enough in frequency and amount to cause physical and/or emotional distress in the person experiencing it (Ford-Martin, Frey 2011). Incontinence occurs when there is dysfunction in either the storage function or occasionally, in the emptying function of the lower urinary tract (Santiagu, 2008, p.2). There are many different types of urinary incontinence that affect people worldwide, according to Ford-Martin/Frey (2011) there are five major categories of urinary incontinence: overflow, stress, urge, functional, and reflex. Overflow incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine associated with bladder over-distention in the absence of destrusor muscle contractions thus, people with overflow incontinence have an obstruction to the bladder or urethra, or a bladder that doesn't contract properly (Ford-Martin,Frey 2011, p. 1). This type of incontinence is most common in the older adults, especially men who have an enlarged prostate gland. Due to the enlarged prostate gland squeezing the urethra the bladder never empties completely and is full most of the time which can cause small amounts of urine to leak (Carter, 2012). The next type of incontinence is stress incontinence which occurs when vesical pressure exceeds urethral pressure in the setting of sudden increases in intraabdominal pressure, that can be associated to weakness of the pelvic floor or sphincter (Santiagu, 2008, p.2). Stress Incontinence is a leaking of urine and is common during pregnancy, coughing, sneezing, lifting or laughing, or during awkward body movements that stress the body's bladder control (President and Fellows of Harvard College, 2006, p. 1). Urge Incontinence or aka overactive bladder is when a person feels a sudden need to urinate, and cannot control the urge to do so and urine is involuntary lost before the individual can get to the toilet (Ford-Martin/Frey, 2011). Although urge incontinence can happen to healthy people it is commonly associated with Parkinson's disease, stroke, or multiple sclerosis (Carter, 2012). Functional Incontinence is when individuals have control over their own urination and have a fully functioning urinary tract, but can't make it to the bathroom in time due to physical or cognitive disabilities such as, Alzheimer’s disease or severe arthritis (Ford-Martin/Frey, 2011). The 5th major type of urinary incontinence known as reflex incontinence is the involuntary loss of an individuals control of their bladder without warning causing a moderate amount of involuntary urine loss and is typically due to neurological impairment (Ford-Martin/Frey, 2011).
Urinary incontinence can be diagnosed by a variety of different healthcare professionals such as by a general practitioner, urologist, or gynecologist (Carter, 2011). Different types of exams may be done to diagnose urinary incontinence for example: x-rays, ultrasounds, voiding cystourethrographies,...

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