Motivation is a perennial problem in an organisation. Organisations have a perpetual concern on what should be done to maintain high levels of performance in the workforce. Motivation is defined as “The will and desire that a person has to engage in a particular behaviour or perform a particular task” (Lawley & King, P269). Motivation is a key factor in a workforce. Theories’ have used this key element to explain how efficient an organisation or an individual can operate. They discuss how motivation may influence an individual’s behaviour physiology and give the individual an incentive to reach their goals and objectives.
A need-related model of the process of motivation suggests that motivation is initiated by the conscious recognition of unsatisfied needs. Needs create wants which leads to a desire for goals and objectives. This process of motivation forms a behaviour pathway. This process of repeated successful behaviour is called reinforcement or the law of effect (hall,1951).
There are two types of motivation identified by Herzberg et al (1957). The first theory of motivation is intrinsic motivation which suggests self-fulfilling factors that influence individual to behave in a particular way or stir in a particular direction. These factors include responsibility and autonomy. The second theory of motivation originally identified by Herzberg is extrinsic motivation which suggests people are motivated to perform efficiently by a cause of rewards such as pay, promotion, praise and punishment. Extrinsic motivation is immediate and has a powerful effect because this gives individuals the incentive to perform. The person has a sense of value and belonging and this will tend to put the person in a positive and optimistic attitude. Their behaviour may change causing the individual to less likely dwell on pass negatives and less likely opt towards performing negative performances. For example, if a sales man makes a certain amount of sales in a month, he/she may be reward with a bonus or a promotion or vice versa, they may be criticised and not rewarded. Intrinsic motivation is likely to have deeper and long term effect because this type of motivation is created within the individual and not imposed from external sources. Tesco uses these two theories of motivation for the retention of its staff. Tesco plc will use extrinsic motivation to help its staff stay motivated and have the will to perform to their maximum efficiency as they need well trained, motivated staff who will recognise the customer’s needs. They may do this by way of reward bonuses or promotion. This will lead to the intrinsic motivation which may cause the staff to become self-fulfilling as they may feel responsible for the job they are performing and will likely do it to the best of their ability.
Theorist F W Taylor used the instrumentality theory to suggest that rewards or punishment serves as the means of ensuring that people behave or act in desired ways (Michael...