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Who Bears The Primary Responsibility For The Conditions In Prison And The Conduct Of Prisoner;, The Society, The Criminal Justice System Or The Prisoners Themselves?

1295 words - 5 pages

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILTY FOR DEVIANT CONDUCT AND PENITENTIARY CONDITIONSCriminologists, sociologists and psychologists have studied underlying causes of crimesince a long time but there are still not universally agreed-upon reasons. Most criminal research show that guilty people have always a complicated psychology. Social factors and internal factors both determine a criminal's conduct, and this complicity makes us to question those factors and thus want to find out who is primarily responsible for people being behind bars and for the conditions they are corrected in.Although we are often told that social factors are no excuse for committing crime, it is apparent that society bears the primary responsibility for criminal conducts and penitentiary conditions because society plays the most important role in shaping an individual's character and social demand is the barometer of the criminal justice system. Therefore, it certainly does not follow, as many in government would have us believe, that crime is unrelated to society since human are to be seen as social beings.Position in social life, family life, relationships between friends and ability to share feelings inside are the common factors forming a person's identity. Some social groups are obviously more conducive to crime because of the social environment they live in. And having looked at the family lives of criminals, it can be concluded that, the tendency to crime usually begins in a broken family which can be generated in different ways such as death, separation and divorce. On the other hand, the main determinant of delinquent behavior is doubtlessly economic status. Criminal research show that criminal activity increases with unemployment and poverty. This demonstrates that crime is affected by the experience of recession and that changing pressures and opportunities alter the character and distribution of deviance as well as increasing its incidence. In 1955, Sainsbury found that crime was closely linked to poverty (Criminals are born or made?) and evidence now suggests that criminality is linked to economic and income inequalities. And there are plausible reasons for thinking that recession, causing widening income inequality and increasing unemployment, might result in the powerless committing more conventional crimes. On the other hand, there is confusion of 'causation' and 'excuse'. Unemployment and widening income inequality might not be an excuse recognizable in laws, but that does not mean that these two features of recession do not affect the level of crime.In addition, there are other social factors such as being socially excluded and education. Crime sometimes appears as revenge on society. In some societies some people such as black people or transsexuals can be seen as 'bad' or 'mean'. Such labels can change within different societies and times, but victims of this situation are everywhere socially excluded. They cannot find good jobs, feel humiliated, and become revenge...

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