Why Are Women Paid Less Than Men? The Gender Gap
The equality between men and women is an integral part of human rights, it is also a prerequisite for democracy and social justice. Any democratic state seeks to promote gender equality in all spheres of life. Despite the creation of a strong legal framework to ensure the principle of equality of both sexes, the gap between men and women about their capabilities remains significant (Pomeroy, 72).
One of the criteria of gender equality is equal pay for men and women. As of 2013, the average salary of women in the world is 38.7% of the average wage of men. At the same time in many countries, the level of education of women is much larger than that of men. This is indicated by the proportion of people with higher education among women and men, by the gender ratio of university students, and by the average duration of study at universities. Therefore, the aim of this work is to study the deep historical causes of gender inequality in society.
With the adoption of the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, American women won the right to vote. However, at the beginning of the century, the idea of giving equal voting rights for men and women was defended by few people. The first woman to advocate for equality was a native of Scotland, Francis Wright. Having come to the United States in 1826, she began to read the extensive course of lectures, during which she defended voting right for women. In 1836, her activity was continued by Ernestine Rose, who came from Poland, and achieved more success in this field. She has achieved individual hearing at the New York Legislature, though her petition was signed by only five senators. Around this time, in 1840, Lucretia Mott and Margaret Fuller developed activities of the suffragists in Boston. Later, they co-wrote the book "The Great lawsuit: Man against Woman." Subsequently, Susan Brounel. Anthony, Virginia Minor, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Paulina Kellogg Wright Davis actively fought for the rights of women (Reiter, 102).
However, in the U.S. women's rights movement began much later than in the Old World. Social preconditions of dissemination of feminist ideas can be seen in undermining social class organization of feudal society in terms of origin of bourgeois relations, which entailed the involvement of women in paid employment and their transformation into proprietress of their working hands (Krolokke, 18).
Intellectual premises of feminism were established by the processes of secularization of public consciousness, the emergence utopian theories of social equality critical in their nature.
The idea of equal social rights for women and men goes back to the Enlightenment and the French Revolution of the 18th century and is associated with the establishment of the liberal concept of "natural rights and liberties" of man. This concept for the first time in Europe has been fixed in the main document of the French Revolution...