To understand the developing countries and their aim of identification, it can be mentioned that “The great battleground for the defense and expansion of freedom today is the whole southern half of the globe, the lands of the rising peoples. Their revolution is the greatest in human history. They seek an end to injustice, tyranny and exploitation. More than an end, they seek a beginning” John F. Kennedy 1961. The south or third world countries are; “group of countries which have colonial histories and which are in the process of developing economically and socially from a status characterized by low incomes , dependence on agriculture, weakness in trading relations, social deprivation for large segments of society, and restricted political and civil liberties” (Smith, 1996, p:1). Nevertheless, third world countries can be considered the developing countries regarding the influences and affects that have been made to them and their nation by the greater power that they were ruled by.
In this paper some of the reasons of the failure of nation states during 20th century will be mentioned and discussed with regards to Somalia as an Example.
In regards to the third world and according to fund for peace a failed institution; state failure has many multidimensional indicators, which are:
socially which are; high rate of Mounting Demographic Pressures, Massive Movement of Refugees or Internally Displaced Persons, Legacy of Vengeance-Seeking Group Grievance or Group Paranoia, Chronic and Sustained Human Flight. Economically: Uneven Economic Development along Group Lines, Sharp and/or Severe Economic Decline. Politically: Criminalization and/or De-legitimization of the State, Progressive Deterioration of Public Services, Suspension or Arbitrary Application of the Rule of Law and Widespread Human Rights Abuse, Security Apparatus Operates as a "State Within a State", Rise of Factionalized Elites, Intervention of Other States or External Political Actors” (FFP, 2013).
According to (FFP, 2013) the horn of Africa or Somalia is one of the most failed states in the 20th and 21st century in the third world countries. Civil wars and collapse of central government since 1991 are playing a big part of its failure. Although Somalia had a great potentials to make it as a state and economically evolve due to their geographic location which is on the Atlantic Ocean and the unity of religion and language, which are Islamic and Arabic mostly (Lalieu, 2010), But there are many reasons which had huge impacts on Somalia to its failure that will be explained in details.
One of the main reasons of state failure which had a very long term impact on most of the developing nations is colonialism which is; “the political control of peoples and territories by foreign states whether accompanied by significant permanent settlement or not” (Bernstein, p: 242). Almost all of the developing states have been colonized previously by one or more colonial powers,...