Why Did Contemporaries Engage In Such Fierce Debate Over The Impact Of Eighteenth Century Enclosure?

3383 words - 14 pages

Why did contemporaries engage in such fierce debate over the impact of enclosure in eighteenth century England?The eighteenth century carried a number of problems including inflation, the effects of the French wars, the growth of industry and the demand for more food and this compelled farmers to use all available land in a more productive manor. The main obstacle to improvements in agriculture was thought to be the open field system of farming and this led to enclosure occurring first in the form of private agreement between landowners and then by Parliamentary enclosure from about 1750. Enclosure changed agricultural practices which had operated under systems of co-operation in communally administered landholdings, usually in large fields which were devoid of physical territorial boundaries. In their place it created systems in which agricultural holding was on a non-communal, individual basis where man-made boundaries separated one person's land from that of his neighbours. Open-field farming and landownership structure was thereby replaced by individual initiative and individual landholding; specific ownership of land was registered; shared ownership was separated (by identifying common rights of property); and communal obligations, privileges and rights were declared void for all time. Parliamentary enclosure occurred particularly during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars when 18 percent of England's land was enclosed and this prompted much contemporary debate.Much of the debate in the eighteenth century was about the principles and efficiencies of the open field system and indeed the supporters of enclosure claimed the communal system was hugely wasteful and inefficient. Much opposition to enclosure however felt that this system was flexible; capable of significant improvements without enclosure and indeed that it was better to have a lot of self supporting farmers then one large market producing farm. The fierce debate about the impact of enclosure therefore originates from the arguments held before it was implemented about the inefficiencies of the open field system. It was common form in the preamble of an enclosure Bill to describe the inadequacies and defects of the open field system which they proposed to rid. Indeed a Bill submitted to Parliament in 1782 for the enclosure of regions in Wiltshire read, "The lands... lie intermixed, and dispersed, in small parcels and most of them are inconveniently situated; and in their present Situation are incapable of any considerable Improvement." Open field farming and the scattering of plots was said by Turner to be the "evil of bad cultivation". In fact, the commons frequently may have been well-run, though the restraints on its depletion and the incentives for investment in it may have been "softer" than the hard-edged norms of private property.Contemporaries said that the open field system was wasteful and incapable of improvements and this was due to a number of factors. The...

Find Another Essay On Why did contemporaries engage in such fierce debate over the impact of eighteenth century enclosure?

To What Extent did the Values of the Enlightenment Fuel an 'Industrial Revolution' in Britain in the Late Eighteenth Century and Early Nineteenth Century?

1751 words - 7 pages Also known as 'The Age of Reason', the Enlightenment is a term used to describe a period emerging from centuries of darkness and ignorance into a new age enlightened by reason, science, and a respect for humanity. Although the Enlightenment is usually associated with the eighteenth century, it's roots go back much further and it is important to understand how the values of the enlightenment were shaped. Works such as Essay Concerning Human

Why was there such a large number of witch trails in the 17th Century?

1704 words - 7 pages witchcraft was treated and then looks more deeply into its roots and background. It looks at issues like, why after the civil war did witchcraft become such a big thing. To do this growth of the press, village life, and religious change leading to an increasingly suspicious society are all valid points to consider.England in the 17th century had a fragile social state, with most sorts of class systems abolished or just lost due to the civil war, making

Why Did The Allies Disagree Over The Treatment Of Germany In 1919?

545 words - 3 pages The allies disagreed over the treatment of Germany in 1919 because they all had different experiences of war.France is geographically situated right next to Germany, and had the most casualties and damage, as the battles had largely taken place on French soil . They were old enemies, having been humiliated in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles with the establishment of the Second German Empire in 1870-1871. The Prime Minister, Clemenceau was the

“Why did the ‘Reconstruction’ of the South prove to be such an all-around failure?”

817 words - 4 pages In theory, Lincoln’s plan of Reconstruction seemed an efficient way to redeem the South of its devastation. He was willing to give them a break and do far more for the former Confederates than they deserved. Reconstruction proved to be a failure because Southerners regressive and resistant to change. Because of conflicting viewpoints between Andrew Johnson and congress, the false promises of the Reconstruction Amendments and South’s reign of

When Did You Come Over? The Irish Catholic Experience in Nineteenth Century Britain

2809 words - 11 pages the nineteenth century transferred this cultural and economic divide across the Irish Sea to the industrial cities of Victorian Britain. This paper will examine the reasons for the existence of an important Irish Catholic Culture on the British mainland, looking specifically at the Irish immigrant experience in nineteenth century Britain. The economic and societal plight of nineteenth century Irish migrants in Britain, along with efforts of the

Why Slavery had such a big impact on the casue of the Civil War

921 words - 4 pages slaves "escaping into any... state or territory of the United States...may be lawfully reclaimed and conveyed to the person claiming his or her labor or service" -- and even in the free territories, "slavery and involuntary servitude ... in the punishment of crimes" was not prohibited.There was also the issue of the rising middle class. This had an economical impact as well, because these people were not poor, but also did not have a whole lot of

How did Malala Yousafzai impact on girl’s education around the world in the 21st century? - essay

1279 words - 6 pages Stage 2 Society and Culture Assessment type 1: Folio (Cultural Diversity) Essay: Influence upon legal and political systems Introduction As a young teenager, Malala Yousafzai (Image 1) resisted the Taliban in Pakistan and requested that young girls be permitted to get an education. While she fought for girl’s education the Taliban, who was in control of her village, did not want girls to be educated. She was shot in the head by a Taliban

Why Did A.J.P Taylor’s Analysis of the Origins of the Second World War Cause Such Controversy Among Historians?

1043 words - 5 pages Why did A.J.P Taylor’s analysis of the origins of the Second World War cause such controversy among historians? It was broadly considered that the Second World War began in 1939 because of Hitler’s plan for world domination; many historians validated this view at the time until A.J.P. Taylor published his book ‘Origins of the Second World War’ in 1961. A. J. P Taylor was the first historian to examine the war with a completely open mind

Why Did Slave Trading Intensify in Nineteenth-Century East Africa?

1384 words - 6 pages ). Some economic and commercial factors were responsible to enhance the slave trading. In 1800, the large-scale production of cane sugar, and other monocultures such as coffee in Brazil intensified. Slaves were recruited to work in gold mines, to help farmers with the handwork of the land, to help families with usual domestic works and to operate and control the ivory trade. The presence of Islam in 19th century East African coast was creating

Why did Islamic conservatism gain supporters in the late 20th century Middle East? - Saddleback college - Homework

179 words - 1 page The Muslim world took a turn toward conservatism because of a combination of the failure of secular governments to deliver on the basics for their citizens, coupled with the Saudis and other oil-rich Gulf Arabs pouring tons of money into proselytizing an extremely conservative and intolerant brand of Islam. During the 20th Century, most Muslim countries without abundant oil wealth were ruled by secular governments that were often repressive and

Why did the Disney Brand devaluate over years?

1274 words - 5 pages of imagination and magic. In many people's mind, Disney is the synonymous of entertaining and away from the harsh reality. However, there is absolutely no question that Disney had weakened their brand over these years. The so called "cast members" sarcastically implied the company's CEO Mr. Michael Eisner's yelling for "cut". Seemingly number one problem for the Mickey Mouse is that the current leadership has no sense of stewardship of a beloved

Similar Essays

The Social Consequences Of The Changes In 18th Century Rural England Have Caused Controversy Amongst Contemporaries And Historians. Why Have The Changes Caused Such Controversy?

1445 words - 6 pages enclosure cameAnd dreams of plunder in such rebel schemesHave found too truly that they were but dreams"This however being the viewpoint of the villager who can only comment on his own circumstance and of what he envisages around him. There are many conflicting debates that can be had as to why the changes caused such controversy and with all the facts, figures and contemporary viewpoints available then a level debate is in the most part the fair debate, adding to that, contemporaries will hold their views based on personal circumstance and historians will hold their views based on facts, figures and various sources.

By The End Of The Eighteenth Century, Medical Education Had Undergone Substantial Changes. How And Why Did This Happen?

1217 words - 5 pages properties’ (Porter, p.254) of the oxide were side lined the eighteenth century saw the knowledge of science progress and its link to medicine enhance ‘…man’s control over nature’ (Porter, p.245) as Francis Bacon once remarked. Medical discoveries in the eighteenth century led to fundamental changes in the education of medicine. Physiologists such as Albrecht von Haller who discovered irritability allowed professors to realise education needed to be

Why Did The "Bloody Code" Come Into Such Force In The 18th Century, And Then Was Largely Abolished In The Early Part Of The 19th Century?

1957 words - 8 pages The law is that thou shalt return from hence, to the place where thou camest, and from thence to the place of execution, where thou shalt hang by the neck till the body be dead, dead, dead and the Lord have mercy upon thy soul.The eighteenth century is notorious for the creation of the Bloody Code (1618-1815) of capital laws in the English criminal legal system. The administration of justice and the importance of punishment to the maintenance of

Compare And Contrast The Style Of Commands Of Ghengis Kahn And Napoleon. Incl. Strategy And Operations, And Army Organization. In What Areas Did They Succeed Over Their Contemporaries?

1175 words - 5 pages THIS WAS LIMITED TO A 1-2 PAGE ESSAY ANSWER (TIMED) FOR A MIDTERM EXAMQuestion:From your readings thus far compare and contrast the style of commands of Ghengis Kahn and Napoleon with specific reference to Strategy and Operations, and army organization. In what areas did they succeed over their contemporaries?My Answer:Almost 600 years separated the rise of Genghis Khan and Napoleon Bonaparte--The former finalizing his claim to power at the