Why Did The Communists Win The Chinese Civil War Gcse History Assignment

731 words - 3 pages

Why did the Communists win the Civil War?
Did they win it; or the Nationalists lose it?
Main reason – military
· Against Japanese – Communists had learnt how to fight against larger forces
· Guerrilla warfare highly successful
· In Manchuria – also worked well
· Terrain was hilly and large forested areas
· 1930s Mao wrote – when fighting a superior enemy communists should establish base areas in the mountains and mount surprise attacks against weak areas
· Wear and tear – pick off nationalist forces one by one, disrupt communication routes and dominating rural areas
· Leaves Nationalists isolated in cities
Communist military leadership
· Lin Biao – outstanding military leader
· During 1947 – transformed the PLA into a conventional army
· Absorbed much of the army of the Manchukuo puppet government in Manchuria
· New recruits from peasant supporters
· Later – main source of new recruits was nationalist forces who surrendered
· PLA become formidable – captured weapons, intense political indoctrination
· Moved to offensive strategy – brought victory in Manchuria and then northern, central and southern China
Nationalist errors
· Chiang sent best troops into Manchuria – without securing northern or central China
· Troops spread too thin, supply lines long and vulnerable to guerrilla warfare
· Loss of Manchuria in early 1948 – crucial defeat
· Corrupt and incompetent leadership also important
· Conscript army – left without food, water, lacked fighting spirit, deaths from cold and hunger as well as desertions
· Many willing to surrender to Communists
Communist agents in Nationalist army
· Nationalist commander in Manchuria – Communist agent – kept his forces in Manchuria long after their position had become hopeless – ensured suffered even worst defeat
· Battle for Nanjing – 2 senior Nationalist generals sent info to the Communists
· Beijing-Tianjin campaign – Nationalist commander’s daughter fed information to the PLA
Nationalist attempts to infiltrate Communists – failed
· Mao innately suspicious and determined to root out enemy agents
· Ruthless use of terror to keep control meant there was no space for agents to exploit – always watched and controlled
Base of Communist...

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