Do you ever wonder why people do what they do? Does it surprise you that your friends or your siblings react so differently to the same situation? Some people tend to be friendly and open-minded. Some prefer to keep to themselves. Some are very careful in putting things together while some care less about how things are arranged. In a typical social setting, people’s different attitudes can be easily observed. While some people are busy making new friends, others seem to be the center of attraction and playing a leading role. Somewhere in the corner, someone is just on his or her own, observing what is happening while some don’t seem to be interested in anything happening. There are different people in the world who have personalities that make them unique. Since the days of Ancient Greece to the present day, it has been confirmed that there are four different temperaments: sanguine type, phlegmatic type, choleric type and melancholic type.
The four temperaments is a psychological theory that suggests that there are four fundamental personality types. The Greek physician Hippocrates (466-370 BC) combined the four temperaments into his theory as part of the ancient medical concept of humorism that four bodily fluids affect human personality traits and behaviors. He believed that certain human moods, emotions and behaviors were caused by an excess or lack of fluids-humors: blood, yellow bile, black bile and phlegm. The word “temperament” comes from the Latin word “temperare”, -to mix. It was Claudius Galen, a Greek physician (AD 131-200) who categorized the temperaments into the Sanguine, Choleric, Melancholic, and Phlegmatic, after the bodily humors named above respectively. Each was a product of an excess of one of the humors that produce, in turn, the inconsistency in paired qualities (Galen, AD 131-200).
The sanguine temperament has been called “people-oriented extroverts”. They are basically sociable and pleasure-seeking. The people with this personality type are impulsive, enthusiastic and tend to enjoy social gatherings. A sanguine generally struggles with following tasks all the way through, is frequently late, sarcastic and tends to be forgetful. Sanguine personalities are usually quite creative and often have many ideas. Often, when they pursue a new hobby, they lose interest as soon as it ceases to be fun. Inactivity causes them stress because the pace at which they live their life is fast and furious. They are also talkative and not shy. They adopt severe and destructive behaviors for want of fun. However, they are warm hearted, flexible, lively and optimistic. They bring color and energy to the world. A typical example of a sanguine is Tigger in Winnie the Pooh. (Bennett and Bennett, 2005).
The phlegmatic temperament has also been called “people-oriented introverts”. They are fundamentally relaxed and quiet, ranging from warm attentive to lazily sluggish. They are mainly defined by their...