What is resistance?
Resistance is the ability to not be affected or damaged by a certain thing. It is known for the bacterial resistance to antibiotics in the medical fields.
What are bacteria?
Bacteria are singled cell micro-organisms. Many of them are not harmful, some are beneficial to us but there are also dieses-causing bacteria. They are found all over the human body, inside and out. They are not found in the blood and the spinal fluid. Infections are usually seen by the symptoms that the patient produces from the dieses-causing bacteria. If the infections get worse, they will take a blood test of the patient and look at what kind of dieses-causing micro-organisms are causing the infections.
What are antibiotics?
Antibiotics are medication/drugs that fight off, kill and inhabit infections that are caused by dieses-causing micro-organisms. There are different kinds of antibiotics that are classified on their actions that they do (i.e. targeting gram-negative or gram positive bacteria). Infections that should not be treated with antibiotics are:
• Common cold
• Most coughs and bronchitis
• Sore throats (except those coming from strep throat)
• Some ear infections
Antibiotics do not attack or kill viruses, they only attack and kill dieses-causing bacterial micro-organisms.
What is bacteria resistance?
It is the resistance to an antibiotic medicine which was once effective to the bacterial organism. Infections caused by resistant bacterial micro-organisms often fail to the standard treatment of different kind of antibiotics leading to prolonged illness and a greater risk of death. The resistance occurs when the bacteria transform in some way genetically to change or stop the effectiveness of the antibiotics. The prolonged illness can increase the chances of spreading the infections and the resistant bacterial micro-organisms. Thus, increase the cost of antibiotics and all health cares.
Development of the resistance (2 Steps)
Step 1: Genetic change in the bacterium. It removes the essential bacterial protein in the bacteria stopping the antibiotics from de-activating the essential bacterial protein and killing the dieses-causing bacteria. The bacterial micro-organisms can increase their population by multiplying and increase the amount of the essential protein in the bacterium making it too many for the antibiotics to de-activate, produce (more) antibiotic-deactivating-enzyme and change the permeability of the cell membrane or wall of the antibiotic.
Step 2: The transfer of an antibiotic-resistant gene from one bacterial micro-organism to another (e.g. Borrowing, sharing, moving the gene from one host to another).
How the resistance of the bacterial micro-organisms to antibiotics are spread
The movement of bacterial micro-organisms from one host to another, directly or indirectly (food, water, wind, airplane, [contact between] animals, and humans). When the antibiotics attack the dieses-causing bacteria, in the...