This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Why Has Cambodia Remained So Poor

1029 words - 5 pages

Introduction

Cambodia is located in the South East Asia region, bordered by Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and the Gulf of Thailand. Currently it ranks 138 on the UNDP data set, in terms of Human Development, with a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.543 as of 2012. According to World Bank data, around 20.5% of Cambodians live below the national poverty line, implying that at least one in five Cambodians live in destitution. The majority of the poor hail from the rural regions lacking the necessary resources to meet even their daily needs. Cambodia’s prolonged history of violence is one of the chief factors contributing to the current situation, notably, the Khmer Rouge regime, and the period of Vietnamese Communist occupation from 1980-1989. Basing my analysis of the socio-economic and political situation in Cambodia on Collier’s Theory of Poverty Traps, I will attempt to explain in this paper why Cambodia remains impoverished as a nation and as a people.

Literature Review

Collier identifies four development traps which countries in the Bottom Billion fall into and find difficult to get out of, namely: Conflict, Natural Resource, Landlocked with Bad Neighbours, and Bad Governance in a Small Country. According to Collier, these traps impede development in these countries affecting various sectors of their economy.

The Conflict Trap elucidates the plight of a country that falls victim to Civil wars and coups, incurring large economic costs. A country in civil war loses approximately 2.3% growth/annum (Collier 2007, p. 27). Civil war perpetuates a vicious circle of conflict and poverty, and the ensuing conflict results in low growth, which means low income and high unemployment. Additionally, in the time period immediately following a major conflict, relapse is highly probable, since as Collier claims, the longer a country stays in a state of conflict, the more players become entrenched in profiting from the continuing state of tumult, making the whole situation increasingly intractable.

The Natural Resource Trap explains that countries that are rich in natural resources are ironically usually worse off than countries that are not. Collier points out a variety of factors that cause this dilemma (Collier 2007, p. 38). Natural resources generate revenue, which means that governments do not have to tax its citizens, consequently reducing their financial accountability or fiscal responsibility. The preponderance of valuable natural resources can lead to over exploitation and result in the ‘Dutch disease’ (Collier 2007, p. 39), where a country's other industries become less competitive as a result of currency valuation due to the revenue raised from the resource. The rush of investment in one sector sucks attention, capital, and skills from all other parts of the economy, causing the economy to become heavily one-sided. As revenues often end up in the foreign bank accounts of the elite, it is rare profits from natural resources to reach the people.

The...

Find Another Essay On Why has Cambodia Remained So Poor

What are the assumptions of realism and why has it been so influential in the studies of International relations?

1611 words - 6 pages China.Realism is based upon a series of fundamental assumptions, which when looked at, can explain why indeed realism has been so successful within the sphere of international relations. Its first and key assumption is a pessimistic view of human nature. This sees humans as primarily concerned with their own interests, looking to further themselves in a selfish demeanour, as Morgenthau put it, a 'will to power'. This means human beings everywhere are to

Why are there such divergent views of the history of the Middle East and why has the acceptance of such views been so instrumental in helping perpetuate the conflict, especially that between Israel...

2418 words - 10 pages Matriculation No: 120004127Module: IR2006Tutor: Simon TaylorDate: February 17th, 2014Word Count: 2,061Question: Why are there such divergent views of the history of the Middle East and why has the acceptance of such views been so instrumental in helping perpetuate the conflict, especially that between Israel and Palestine?IR2006Why are there such divergent views of the history of the Middle East and why has the acceptance of such views been so

This essay, Reality TV, explores why reality tv has become so popular

1253 words - 5 pages again. Personally he would like to see the Portland Trailblazers win, but he knows that there is a very slim chance that will happen because the Lakers are a very dominate team. So in his eyes it is almost like the hope that the good guy has just as good of a chance as everyone else to win.So is it people's desire to see an underdog win what keeps them so interested in these shows? I don't think that is the only thing that makes shows like

Qantas Airlines: A Case Study Analysis - Why has Qantas been so successful?

2637 words - 11 pages 1Profile of QantasThe Qantas Group has a long history in the Australian airline industry. It began its operations in 1920 as the second oldest airline in the world. Passenger and mail services started in 1920. When the Australian Government bought Qantas in 1947 to operate as the nation's flag carrier, Qantas was restricted to flying only internationally, while the domestic market was heavily regulated.After deregulation of the industry in the

Research Paper on "The Red Badge of Courage" by Stephen Crane and why it has been famous for so long

1499 words - 6 pages were unorganized. This is ironic because Henry fled when he should have, yet at the same time he was breaking the laws of war.The Red Badge of Courage is one of America's greatest coming-of-age novels and this is a major reason is has been so meritorious. "Every young person must confront the fear associated with being expected to take charge rather than to be taken care of" (Cumberland 266). War is, and always will be a major issue for young adults

To what extent did Pol Pot have a catastrophic effect on society?

1500 words - 6 pages Pol Pot and his party The Khmer Rouge ruled Cambodia from 1975 to 1979. Pol Pot, to a very large extent had a catastrophic effect on society, one from which Cambodia has not made a full recover. Pol Pot, to a large extent, had a catastrophic effect on the lives of his people. He was responsible for the killing of around 25% of the population, in particular, the intelligentsia, or anyone who appeared educated (Pagewise Inc. 2002). His policies

The Cambodian Genocide: A Tragedy Hidden from the World

2451 words - 10 pages many years of long and grueling work. The damage done by killing so many people, including so many of its skilled workers, like doctors, has been hard to repair. The primary reason why the Khmer Rouge gained power over Cambodia was because of Lon Nol’s cruelty. When Lon Nol overthrew Prince Sihanouk, a well-liked ruler, and became a horrible dictator, he opened the door for the Khmer Rouge to take control of Cambodia. The citizens of Cambodia

Cambodia: Behind Modern Times

3046 words - 13 pages Organization). A lacking French initiative to invest in the economy of Cambodia during its reign exacerbate the problem of illiteracy (Tourism of Cambodia). With lacking formal education in distant rural areas and teachers not properly trained one can see why Cambodia’s literacy is behind the rest of the world. The government has begun to recognize the need for this important change and instituted programs to improve the country’s functional

Factors Leading to Genocide and Consequences of It

2829 words - 11 pages countries tried to play on the policy of neutrality and opposition to the USA. Sihanouk also hoped that China would keep Vietnam and Thailand away from Cambodia, and stop them from acting against Cambodia. China in its part viewed Cambodia's nonalignment as an opposition to the USA, which was trying to encircle China by its allies. However, Cambodia needed help and assistance to continue to nation-building, so Sihanouk turns to

Human Trafficking in Cambodia

2105 words - 8 pages government, the Khmer Rouge, executed over thirty percent of the population of Cambodia in just four years. However, the ethnic conflict has led to more brothels, causing a larger population. This large birth rate has created overpopulated cities and poor sanitation. Furthermore, education is an issue due to the lack of responsible teachers and classroom availability, and many girls are rejected by their family or villages for giving away their

The Worst Famine in Recorded History

2159 words - 9 pages and peaceful with complete equality for everyone “without rich or poor and without exploiters or exploited.” According to their Constitution, the Democratic Kampuchea would allow all citizens of Cambodia to succeed, including those who had previously been farmworkers in a lower class than city-dwellers and intellectuals. The ultimate goals of Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, and other government officials were also described in their national anthem, which

Similar Essays

Why Has American Society Developed So Violently?

2147 words - 9 pages Why has American society developed so violently?Violence in American society is a vast topic starting at its birth in the 1776 Revolution and continuing to the present day. Despite the diversity of each period of violence there are common features that resurface in each one. The use of violence to found the nation and also to preserve it in Civil War, legitimatised it with the belief that "violence in a good cause pays" . In many ways this

Why Has Trade Union Density Declined In So Many Countries Since The Early 1980s?

2465 words - 10 pages Germany”. (Fulton, 2013) Another explanation why Unions are not seen as relevant in Germany is that it has a centralised wage setting system, and accordingly low union backed wage increases, the German trade union worker may very well ask “What is it in it for me?” The change in Union density is similarly replicated in Asia, where there is largely a very different model to employment relations. Despite a high in the 1970’s Japan trade union

The Philosophical Beliefs Of Geoffrey Chaucer: Why Has Chaucer's Works Been Kept Alive For So Long? What Are His Beliefs?

1108 words - 4 pages Geoffrey Chaucer's works have been studied and kept alive throughout the centuries. The reason Chaucer has had such an effect on the world is because of his unique ability to reveal the truth. Chaucer "unmasked" and "unveiled" the social structures and commonly accepted philosophies that people have relied on as being true. This theme especially applies to the hypocrisies based upon Christianity and the 14th century Roman Church. Besides for

Why Has Trade Union Membership Shrunk So Dramatically In The Past Twenty Five Years? Will This Continue?

1986 words - 8 pages led the unions to a disastrous stage till this very day.Increased government and employer opposition has long been one of the key factors as to the contributory factors to the declining rate of union membership. The effects of government and legislations play a huge role on unions although many do not take political factors into account. Anti-union legislations have been unleashed, the first wave introduced by the 1996 Workplace Relations Act