Willful Modulation Of Brain Activity In Disorders Of Consciousness By Ibtissam El Berri

745 words - 3 pages

During the past years, the number of survivors of severe brain injury has increased as a result of improvements in intensive care, which goes along with an increase in the number of patients who have been diagnosed with a disorder of consciousness. We can distinguish two types of disorders in consciousness: “If repeated examinations yield no evidence of a sustained, reproducible, purposeful, or voluntary behavioral response to visual, auditory, tactile, or noxious stimuli, a diagnosis of a vegetative state is made. Some patients remain in a vegetative state permanently. Others eventually show inconsistent, but reproducible signs of awareness, including the ability to follow commands, but they remain unable to communicate interactively. This is called a minimally conscious state.” (Monti, et al. 2010, p.580) The numbers of misdiagnosis in disorders of consciousness is nowadays set at a rate of approximately 40%. This was stated in the research “Willful Modulation of Brain Activity in Disorders of Consciousness” by Monti, et al. (2010) in the New England Journal of Medicine. The research was conducted with two main aims: the first aim was to determine the proportion of patients who are able to repeatedly and sound adjust their functional MRI responses. The second aim was to develop and validate a technique that would allow these patients to communicate by responding to yes or no questions with the use of their own brain activity.
The research involved a control group, 54 patients with disorders of consciousness and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The control group included 16 healthy people with no history of a neurologic disorder and out of the 54 patients, there were 23 in a vegetative state and 31 in a minimally conscious state. The 54 patients underwent fMRI to assess their performance on motor and spatial tasks. The fMRI was applied to assess each patient’s ability to “generate willful, neuroanatomically specific, blood-oxygenation-level–dependent responses during two established mental-imagery tasks” (Monti, et al. 2010 p.579). Hereafter, a certain technique was applied to determine whether this technique could or could not be used for the patients to answer yes or no questions...

Find Another Essay On Willful Modulation of Brain Activity in Disorders of Consciousness by Ibtissam el Berri

Men, Women, and the Willful Misinterpretation of Female Speech

1362 words - 5 pages either willful misinterpretation or forced silence in order to draw women back into their verbal control. Mary Crawford and Elizabeth Bennet are two of Austen's more dynamic threats to male control over discourse, but even the meek and modest Fanny Price can become a threat by departing from the gendered rules of speech. When she refuses Henry's proposal, Sir Thomas is stunned, having "[expected] from Fanny [a] cheerful readiness to be guidedSh Her

States of Consciousness Essay

898 words - 4 pages explained it by saying "Your consciousness, your experience of being, who you really are, is energy. We can call it "Life Energy." This energy does not just live in your brain; it fills your entire body. I think expanding consciousness is a very worthy goal for all who understand thru experience what it's all about. That is, that our very being is identical to our state of consciousness. By expanding our state of consciousness, we expand what we

Stream of consciousness

1752 words - 7 pages ‘Stream of Consciousness’ is a technique, deployed by modernist writers like James Joyce and Virginia Woolf, which is supposed to authentically document the mental process or to capture the ‘atmosphere of mind’. This technique is used to explore the inner reality or the psychic being of characters. Virginia Woolf makes use of this technique in her novel Mrs. Dalloway. For Woolf “life is a luminous halo, a semi-transparent envelope surrounding us

Stream of Consciousness

1452 words - 6 pages ‘stream’ are the metaphors by which it is most naturally described” (233). Consciousness is not fragmented, but a constant flow of thoughts and ideas. Stream of consciousness is a twentieth century technique and is greatly exemplified by modernistic authors Virginia Woolf and T.S. Eliot. Stream of Consciousness is a key piece in twentieth century literature, resembling the change that came during that time. The twentieth century was the rise of

Stream of Consciousness

648 words - 3 pages thinking is closer to the actual process of thinking than the more streamlined flow of thought presented in most novels. The stream-of-consciousness technique attempts to create a more comprehensive and realistic picture of mental activity. In pursuing a train of thought, one encounters various memories and sensations that are associated with the main idea, and the useless or distracting elements may be pushed aside for the moment. This

Differences in How Stress Affects Brain Activity

1326 words - 5 pages areas of the brain work with one another. In a study done by professors from the University of Southern California and the University of Texas, forty seven adults within the range of ages eighteen to thirty three participated in a series of experiments to examine the differences in the brain when put under stress. Areas of the brain pertinent to this study are the insula, important to the use of empathy, the amygdala, the temporal pole, the area

Importance of Streams of Consciousness in A Farewell To Arms

1852 words - 7 pages Importance of Streams of Consciousness in A Farewell To Arms       Suddenly, it enters your thoughts and streams throughout your mind; you begin to think, you are in a stream of consciousness. You are in your own world of random words and sentences, amounting to nothing, and at times making all the sense in your world, a world that only exists within your mind. That is exactly how a stream of consciousness works, according to Charles

Performance analysis of adaptive modulation for high mobility LTE system

2014 words - 9 pages color noise variance is calculated. 2-D minimum mean square error (MMSE) is used for noise variance at each subcarrier is estimated. By using statistics, the coefficient of noise can be calculated [7]. These estimates are very useful on adaptive modulation. To measure the average spectral efficiency in imperfect channel estimation, the system performance in the presence of color noise was provided in [8]. Adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) used

The themes of class and class consciousness as seen in the book Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austin

939 words - 4 pages used by Austin to accentuate the themes of class and class-consciousness, which exists in many people throughout various levels or classes of society. "I am happy on every occasion to offer those little delicate compliments...her daughter seemed to be born a duchess, and that the most elevated rank, instead of giving her consequence, would be adorned by her." (P.66) This quote, in which Mr. Collins is addressing the Bennets regarding Lady Catherine

Symbolism of Money in Woman at Point Zero by Nawal El Saadawi

1512 words - 7 pages Munzher Rana Mr. Wallbridge IB HL English 2/1/14 Woman At Point Zero: Symbolism of Money The novel “Woman at Point Zero” by Nawal El Saadawi tells the tale of a woman, named Firdaus being interviewed by a journalist before her execution. She is in prison on the charge of murdering a man, in an extremely sexist culture, which has a lot of disparity between men and women. One of the recurring symbols in the novel was that of money. Money

English Communication Problems in the Philippines and the Consciousness of Today's Youth Essay by aninel, University, Bachelor's, May 2004

985 words - 4 pages global identity as a bilingual nation. For this, we should be proud. But languages, because of their capacity for communication, must only be used to unite people and never to divide us by distinguishing the educated from the underprivileged.essay  Use Essay in a sentencees·say[n. es-ey for 1, 2; es-ey, e-sey for 3-5; v. e-sey] Show IPAnoun1.a short literary composition on a particular theme or subject,usually in prose and generally

Similar Essays

Human Consciousness A Portrait Of The Brain

1743 words - 7 pages Human Consciousness A Portrait of the Brain Through Theories and Discussion A hemispherectomy is a surgical process in which the brain of a patient is halved and one of these parts is then removed. The procedure is only ever carried out on individuals who are very young, as their brains are still flexible, pliable enough that the remaining portion will then take on the functions of the half that had been removed. Though this process is

The Activity Of The Living Human Brain

1720 words - 7 pages movement (REM) brain activity. Slow wave brain activity is characterized by the way in which the brain slows and eventually settles to a rate that is much slower than that of alert waking humans. REM brain activity shows an EEG that is similar to that of an awake and alert person. The most distinct characteristic is that as the name suggests the eyes during brain activity dart around under the eyelids, which imitates movements of awake person's eyes

Stream Of Consciousness In "To The Lighthouse"

593 words - 2 pages Lighthouse is divided into three parts. Woolf marks both the change of scene, as well as the passage of time, ten years, by numerical heading. This does not interfere with the flow of the ?steam of consciousness,? and actually fastens the reader in the plot securely, one knows where one is. The middle part entitled ?Time Passes,? contains the facts that Mrs. Ramsay has died, Andrew has been killed in the war, and Prue has died in childbirth, as well as

Arguments Given By David Chalmers For Rejecting A Materialistic Account Of Consciousness In His Book

5853 words - 23 pages Arguments Given by David Chalmers for Rejecting a Materialistic Account of Consciousness in His Book In this paper I will examine and criticize the arguments David Chalmers gives for rejecting a materialistic account of consciousness in his book The Conscious Mind. I will draw upon arguments and intuitions from the three main schools of thought in the philosophical study of consciousness(a) forms of dualism, (b) materialism, and (c