In an attempt to improve the integration of wireless computing, educators and policymakers are reevaluating ways to incorporate technology tools into the grade level performance standards without separating the two educational standards (Collins & Halverson, 2009; Weston & Bain, 2010). Presently, students and teachers at the rural school district under review have the ability to transmit information through wireless technological resources. Francis and Mishra (2008) explained that teaching-learning with wireless computing effectively will demand that classroom teachers are knowledgeable of the security of information. The researchers insisted that teachers need to know about the stored or transmitted information through wireless technology. In addition, teachers will also need to learn the practicality and effectiveness of using such technology for educational purposes.
Although both the schools and students possess different wireless technology tools within this southeast rural K–12 district in questioned, the devices are not used to augment new pedagogical strategies due to teachers' technology attitudes, lack adequate training or beliefs (Hayes, 2009). Teachers will continue to be uncomfortable with wireless technology unless their attitudes about technology changes (Hennessy, Harrison & Wamakote, 2010).
Teachers' who lack confidence in instructing with wireless technology tools may hesitate to use them (Francis & Mishra, 2008; Teo, 2009). Teachers’ attitudes, awareness, lack of autonomy, lack of skills to assess what wireless technology offers, and technophobia appear to be the primary barriers that hinders teachers from integrating technology into their instructional practices (Hennessy et al., 2010; Ursavas & Karal, 2009). Successful incorporation of available technology into classroom instruction became a fundamental maxim in the political economy (Lee, 2010). Despite teachers’ negative attitudes towards changes and technophobia, changes must transform within the: classrooms, teachers, and delivery of knowledge to students as the world changes (Hall, 2010; Prensky, 2008; Su Luan & Teo 2009).
Not addressing teachers’ negative attitudes will lead to continued challenges with integrating classroom technology, especially with those teachers who focus lessons on memorization or note taking (Ara, 2009; Wang, 2009). In many American classrooms, teachers can be seen using the same traditional methodologies used a century or more ago, with change-resistant teachers instructing students seated in straight rows within the classroom (Overbay, Patterson, & Grable, 2009). Researchers suggested that teaching with traditional methods should also include active learning where students take part in the instructional process (Koole & Ally, 2009; Ryu & Parsons, Li, Sheng, & Javed, 2009; Wang, 2009). Based on the work of Wang (2009), there is a demand for teachers to focus lessons on learning ways to learn or research by using...