The range of wireless networking technologies is extended to cover voice networks and general data, which allows users to transmit different types of data through wireless connections over long distances, besides covering the techniques of infrared light and radio frequency optimal for short-range wireless communications. And with the popularity of laptops, hand phones, handheld computers, PDAs (PDA), pen-based computer, GPS devices, and post-pc era. Intelligent electronics devices that depend on wireless networking technologies have become cheaper, more distributed, more widespread in daily life, For example, users can use their hand phone to access their e-mail. As for ...view middle of the document...
With a low-power circuit and the technologies of networking, a sensor node can be last for a very long time (could reaches to 3 years). A WSN typically consists of tens to several hundreds or thousands of nodes which can communicate through wireless channels and sharing information and processing cooperative. This network can be used on a global measure for environmental monitoring and territory study, the onboard sensors collect different kinds of information about the environment, by using enduring or event focused working modes. Collecting information can also be achieved through (GPS) or algorithms that are locally positioned. Then the information collected from the entire network and correctly handled to create overall view of the monitoring objects or occurrences. The main philosophy behind WSNs is that, while the ability of the individual working of each sensor node could be so limited, the total power of the whole network is corresponding for the required mission. Users can gain information that they interested in from a WSN by inserting requests and collecting results from the base stations, this stations can be considered as an interface between the requester and the network. In fact, WSNs in this case acts as a distributed database and by connecting that sensor networks to the Internet, a worldwide information sharing becomes possible.
WSNs network application could be categorized into two classes
- Data gathering applications, which are focusing on object monitoring that requires limited single processing. The main objective of these applications is to collect quite simple form information, such as humidity, and temperature from the effective environment. This class includes Habitat study applications and some environmental monitoring.
- Computation-Intensive Applications, which require processing and transportation a huge amount of composite data. Like monitoring heavy industrial and video investigation, these require a complicated signal processing algorithms to be used in these applications.
Examples for these applications:
1- Habitat study: The project of (Great Duck Island) is one of the most famous projects that depend on wireless sensor networks. The main concept of this project that the sensors is butted in under the nests of storm petrel by the biologists on stilts with 10cm high, then the data about birds that be recorded by the devices, is transmitted to the research station to be send form there to lab via satellite.
2- Area monitoring: it is a common application of wireless sensor networks, the WSN used to cover a region to monitor some phenomenon such as the geo-fencing of oil or gas lines, and enemy intrusion detection in military use.
3- Health Care monitoring: Body-area networks can provide data about an individual's health, long-term observing for patients with chronicle illnesses or the elderly or post-operative care by implant medical devices with WSN inside human body.
4- Environmental Monitoring: a...