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Employee Motivation Essay

1127 words - 5 pages

Bauer and Erdrogen (2009) define motivation as “the desire to achieve a goal or a certain performance level, leading to goal–directed behavior” (p.97). McConnell (2006) argues that true motivation is self motivation. Today, health care organizations place a lot of emphasis on production and performance. However, motivating employees is a common challenge faced by health care managers and Bauer and Erdrogen (2009) state it is also one of the factors that greatly affect performance. McConnell (2006) states that managers cannot motivate employee; however, they can provide an environment that encourages employees to motivate themselves. Most employees are motivated; however, health care managers are constantly trying various efforts in their workplaces to encourage increased performance among employees who are not performing. Therefore, it is important that managers are aware of “what motivates people?” and “why do some employees try to reach their targets and pursue excellence while others merely show up at work and count the hours?” (Bauer & Erdogen,2009,p.98). There have been numerous researches on motivation and as a result many theories have evolved.
Several theories on motivation exist. These theories are categorized as either content (needs-based) theories or process theories. Udechukwu (2009) states that process theories of motivation focus on the needs or values that favor job satisfaction. Adam’s equity theory, Vroom's expectancy theory, Skinner's reinforcement theory, and Locke's goal setting theory fall under process theories of motivation category. On the other hand, content theories of motivation focus on “the particular needs that must be attained for an individual to be satisfied with his or her job” (Udechukwu, 2009,p.74).Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, ERG theory, Herzberg’s two-factor theory, and McClelland’s acquired-needs theory are examples of content theories of motivation. Two motivation theories that are most prominent in the study of content theories are--Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory (Udechukwu, 2009, p.74).
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs was proposed by Abraham Maslow(Udechukwu, 2009, p.74).According to Maslow, all human beings have basic needs. Both Bauer and Erdrogen (2009) and Sadri and Bowen (2011) state that the five basic human needs, presented in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, are physiological, safety, love/belonging, esteem ,and self-actualization. Udechukwu (2009) states that Maslow believed that humans aspire to self-actualized levels and believe that “once a need has been satisfied substantially, it ceases to be a motivator. Then, employees move to the next level in the needs hierarchy and work on satisfying those needs” (Sadri & Bowen, 2011, p.45).If an employee seem unmotivated and isn’t working up to the level expected of him or her it could be an indication that said employee has needs that are not being met and” need a range of motivators in order to remain engaged in...

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