Working With People And Teams. Essay

7414 words - 30 pages

In job analysis there are many difficulties, some practical, some concerned with the attitudes of employees, therefore, there are important methods which may be used.The direct observation method is always necessary but has several drawbacks. A skilled worker can make a job look easy, and an experienced worker can make a job look difficult. Some manual work is too fast or intricate to be observed accurately, unless film or video is used and mental processes are not revealed.The interview method with the jobholder is nearly always necessary but difficulties often occur, largely because the worker may be suspicious of the job analysis. The employee may decide to exaggerate the importance of the job or occasionally try to make it seem unimportant. The main problems with these interviews are that the worker's attitude may influence his or her account of the job, the employee may, even if co-operative, forget some detail of the job and emphasise the most recent events or the employee may not be able to express him or herself clearly.The interview method with the supervisor is an inevitable occurrence, though its value varies. Supervisors are surprisingly often out of touch with the details of the job, they frequently have never done the job themselves. They sometimes allow their description of the job to be influenced by their opinion of the jobholder and they may exaggerate the duties and responsibilities of the job in order to increase their own importance.A study of the materials of work, that is, tools, working materials, machines, documents, communication and media, frequently provides a useful check on information obtained in other ways, and may suggest questions to be asked.Previous studies of work study records, training manuals and accident reports, are sometimes available and can be brought up to date or added to other information.The do-it-yourself method is when the analyst spends some time actually performing the work personally. The analyst should then be careful not to form too subjective an impression, for example, if the person is no good at figures, the analyst may tend to over-estimate the difficulty of an accounting job.Questionnaires are sometimes used as a method of job analysis but are highly unreliable.The jobholder is asked to fill in answers to written questions about the job, but may be suspicious of the questionnaire, may not understand the questions and feel unduly restricted by them.Work diaries are sometimes used, chiefly for managers and clerical workers. The jobholder records his or her activities in detail throughout the day over a period of about a month. The diary is then analysed to obtain a list of duties and their frequency. If kept conscientiously and accurately, a work diary can be very helpful, but often the jobholder forgets to complete it until the end of the afternoon when recollection of the day's work may not be reliable.The process of job analysis is, therefore, the basis of the recruitment and selection...

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