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Works Cited Essay

1180 words - 5 pages

Works Cited
Fitzgerald, Timothy. "Frackonomics: some economics of hydraulic fracturing." Case Western Reserve Law Review Summer 2013: 1337+. Academic OneFile. Web. 18 Mar. 2014. .
Fracknomics is a detailed, peer-reviewed journal article on the economic benefits of hydraulic fracturing by Timothy Fitzgerald, professor in the Department of Agricultural Economics & Economics, Montana State University. The article is written for economists and business professionals, and supports HF (hydraulic fracturing) . Fitzgerald argues that HF ...view middle of the document...

They conclude that HF fluid will not affect aquifers any time in the near future, refuting other researchers on the topic. Therefore, this paper will be used to refute the environmental argument that HF fluid rises up through the ground and damage aquifers.
Gassiat, Claire, Tom Gleeson, René Lefebvre, and Jeffrey McKenzie. “Hydraulic fracturing in faulted sedimentary basins: Numerical simulation of potential contamination of shallow aquifers over long time scales.” Water Resources Research 49.12 (2013). Web. 18 Mar. 2014.
Three professors at McGill and one professor from Laval, all specializing in Hydrology and Earth and Planetary Sciences, performed a study to discover whether HF fluids are able to migrate through the soil and affect aquifers and drinking water. The study compiles publically available data of shale gas basins and hydraulic fracturing operations and uses this data to develop models to examine aquifer contamination. Results show that specific conditions are needed for
the slow contamination of a shallow aquifer, and that if these conditions are met, it would take 1000 years for the HF fluid to stop affecting the soil. They conclude that because of these findings,
hydraulic fracturing should not be carried out near potentially conductive faults, but would be safe where there are no fault lines. This article will be used to analyse the possibility of earthquakes and natural fault lines and HF.
Gillen, Jennifer L., Erik Kiviat. “Hydraulic Fracturing Threats to Species with Restricted Geographic Ranges in the Eastern United States.” Environmental Practice 14:4 (2012). Web. 18 Mar. 2014.
Jennifer L. Gillen is a junior at Bard College, where she studies environmental and urban studies, with a focus in ecology Erik Kiviat, PhD, has studied biodiversity and its responses to human activities since the late 1960s, working in a variety of areas and focusing on all types of natural life. He has several publications in the ecology field. The article argues that HF poses many threats to biodiversity, because species that have small geographic ranges are vulnerable to environmental impacts of HF. Fifteen species (1 mammal, 8 salamanders, 2 fishes, 1 butterfly, and 3 vascular plants) that share their territory with HF sites were studied. The article concluded that these species are fragile and prone to extinction if their geographic situation is disturbed. This article offers an in-depth look at the ecological effects of HF.
Gordalla, Birgit C., Ulrich Ewers, Fritz H. Frimmel. “Hydraulic fracturing: a toxicological threat for groundwater and drinking-water?” Environmental Earth Science 70:3875–3893(2013). Web. 18 Mar. 2014.
Gordalla is the chair of water chemistry and water technology as...

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