Tuesday, January 30, 2018
Exam I Essay
Discuss the impact of trade on human civilization from approximately 1300 CE to 1600 CE.
Include in your essay examples of the technological developments that facilitated long
distance trade, the limits of trade and interaction, and examples of both land and sea trade
from around the world. Also, do you think these trade connections were always beneficial?
- Rodents and humans carried the plague bacilli, and the disease spread through Afro-Eurasian
overland and sea trade routes
- Political consolidation and trade in Portugal
1. Portugal is an example of how political stabilization and the revival of trade were intertwined.
2. Western Europe followed the Portuguese example of creating national monarchies, while in
northern Europe, the lack of access to trade added to political instabilities.
3. The Portuguese devoted to fighting North African Muslim Moors
1. Seized the North African fortress at Ceuta, Morocco, allowing them access to the
Mediterranean and the Atlantic without interference
2. Also defeated Castile (modern Spain)
3. Henry the Navigator conquered the Atlantic Islands off of the north and west African
Trade among European and African precolonial nations developed relatively recently in the
economic history of the African continent. Prior to the
European voyages of exploration in the fifteenth century, African rulers and merchants
p’olhad established trade links with the Mediterranean world, western Asia, and the Indian
Ocean region. Within the continent itself, local exchanges among adjacent peoples fit into a
greater framework of long-range trade.
The merchants from Britain, France, Portugal, and the Netherlands who began trading along the
Atlantic coast of Africa therefore encountered a well-established trading population regulated by
savvy and experienced local rulers. European companies quickly developed mercantile ties with
these indigenous powers and erected fortified “factories,” or warehouses, on coastal areas to