According to the Population Division of the United Nations, world population reached 6,500 million in 2005 and will continue growing by more than 76 million per year, United Nations estimates indicate that by 2050 there will be between 7,700 million and 10,600 million, being the most likely projection of 9,100 million inhabitants. The availability of arable land and increased efficiency in food production from land can reach their limits. The oceanographic conditions, climate and its effect on soil quality and various human uses to determine crop land will be unable to provide food for the ever growing human population. On the other hand, it is recognized, therefore, that marine and freshwater aquatic, covering over 70% of the planet's surface, are a reservoir of food substances, industrial and biomedical importance, and also a source of degradation and dilution of anthropogenic and industrial waste (Solar, 2002).
Statistics of the United Nations Organization for Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, 2002) indicate that the production of food from the aquatic environment is close to 137 million metric tons, of which almost 31% came from farming activities. The FAO also estimates that to meet the needs of the human population of 2025, total production should increase to 165 million metric tons. This significant increase can not come from the catch of wild species without causing serious damage to marine ecosystems, lakes and rivers. Consequently, the increase in the production of seafood must necessarily come from a significant increase in the efficiency of crops. The world's most populous countries like China, India and Indonesia, or those lacking sufficient arable land areas, such as Japan, are turning mainly to aquaculture for food production (Solar, 2002).
In 1997, for the first time the world production of farmed salmon surpassed the total global catch of wild salmon. In 2000, the salmon produced more than 1.1 million tons or 61% of the total production of salmon in the world. This trend is particularly evident in Norway, where the combination of reduced availability of wild resources and sustained increases of crops has resulted in the production of farmed Atlantic salmon is 100 times higher than the wild catch. In Canada, the decline of natural stocks of Atlantic salmon and Pacific has led to severe restrictions on the catch of wild species. In Chile, growing sustainably salmonid species has increased, reaching in 2000 27% of world production exceeding (52%) the value of exports of fishmeal and other marine products.
In Chile within the various aquatic species on which extractive activities are carried out and cropping, the mussels are second in the national harvest totals (18%), this group being represented by the species' giant mussel "(Choromytilus chorus), the "mussel" (Mytilus chilensis) and "mussel" (Aulacomya atra) (Subpesca, 2006) (Fig.1).
The development of the mussel, which represents the oldest farming...