This website uses cookies to ensure you have the best experience. Learn more

Wrought Iron Material Pathology Essay

2288 words - 10 pages

Wrought Iron

1.0 Introduction

Wrought Iron is a specific type of iron, which literally means “worked iron”. It’s a traditional material worked by the blacksmith in the past. According to Lister, (1957) the word of “worked” refers to the method to produce the wrought iron. It was repeatedly hammered to its intended shape.

As stated by Young (2008), wrought iron is the purest form of metal consisting 99.85% true iron with less than 0.1% of Carbon. The lack of Carbon in the iron makes it resistance to corrosion for a longer period of time. The corrosion process is prolonged due to the lack of Carbon content.

Wrought iron has good properties strength because it is strong in both tension and compression. It is more fibrous in texture, more ductile and has a good resistance of corrosion compared to cast iron (Kent, 1888).

Even though the good prospect in structure, because of the nature of producing the wrought iron, the structural perspectives short of both cross section and length. Resulting short spanned beams. Hence the usage of wrought iron in structural elements restricted due to the small size in length.

But because of the high ductile (due to the less carbon content and the existence of 0.05% impurities in form of slag), wrought iron often used in production of hinges, chains, ornamental grille and gates, window decoration and house furniture.

2.0 Weaknesses

Young (2008) points out that wrought iron has few weaknesses in varies section of production, installation, reaction and maintenance. The author also explains the description as below:

2.1 Metal Fatigue

In the nature of wrought iron production method, the over-repeatedly hammering process could cause metal fatigue in future. It weakened the bonded molecules of iron and the reaction with water and oxygen resulting the lost of structural integrity through out time.

2.2 Moisture and Corrosion

The existence of carbon, even in very small amount and the connection with oxygen and water can cause moisture and corrosion in long period. The wrought iron will become discoloration, condensation and slow rust.

2.3 Jointing Failure

The jointing made by varies method (welding, bolt) has different element composition. It creates chemical reaction towards multiple elements and cause jointing failure and ruins its structural integrity as a whole.

2.4 Construction Issues

Through out the time, additional loads and requirement added in any intervention on existing wrought iron element such as window frame. The new force will be added when replacing the new glass for the window and cause a distortion or even worse, the structural composition.

3.0 Method of diagnosing its failure

To analyze the current condition of wrought iron, few methods used to diagnose its failure

3.1 Observation

The symptoms of material failure can be observed through its discoloration, the change of shape, the unsymmetrical composition, and the change of color and any mark of dampness...

Find Another Essay On Wrought iron material pathology

Aluminum Essay

1218 words - 5 pages powdered iron oxide and aluminum) is heated, the aluminum rapidly removes the oxygen from the iron; the heat of the reaction is sufficient to melt the iron. This phenomenon is used in the thermite process for welding iron . The oxide of aluminum is amphoteric—showing both acidic and basic properties. The most important compounds include the oxide, hydroxide, sulfate, and mixed sulfate compounds. Anhydrous aluminum chloride is important in the

Architecture and Design: Antonio Gaudi and Charles Rennie Mackintosh

1770 words - 7 pages ;  A plain building/design  An austere statement,  A bold breakaway from the traditional methods of architectural adornment. Constructed of masonry and brick work, it occupies a problematic tapered sloping site. From structure to decorative features and meticulously detailed every interior and exterior aspect of the building the material wrought iron was used. The disproportionate facades of the four foremost elevations are each characteristic

Industrialization in Europe

1117 words - 4 pages digging deeper for coal and created machines, like the steam engine, to remove water and other machines that turned water into steam. Gradually the demand for iron and steel was on the rise and so did new techniques to get it and do things with it, like wrought iron, that John Wilkinson decided would be the main building material. By 1820, there was increased production, especially in textiles, iron, and coal. Railroads were being built throughout

Why We Use Metal Sheets

1837 words - 7 pages sheets were allowed to be thinner, which was advantageous when creating smaller details, such as gutters and roofing. The process of creating metal sheet metal evolved, creating a better product. The early materials used were lead, copper, zinc, and iron; steel was introduced as another material in the late nineteenth century. Lead was used mainly for roofing, gutters, and downspouts. However, it was quickly discovered that because of the severe

Architectural Advances During the Industrial Revolution

1505 words - 6 pages . One of its essential sources, it has been shown, is William Morris and the Arts and Crafts; another was Art Nouveau. The works of the nineteenth-century engineers are the third source of our present style, a source as potent as the other two. Engineering architecture in the nineteenth century was largely based on the development of iron, first as cast iron, then as wrought iron, later as steel. Towards the end of the century, reinforced

Maintaining Cultural Identity in Design

3104 words - 12 pages local environment. Their materials make use of what is available in their environment and what is effective in their climate. Some commonly used materials in Mexican design include adobe, wood, ceramic tile, wrought iron, and woven textiles. These supplies are found to be used in a variety of ways. For instance, adobe and wood are often seen being used for structural purposes. One might see exposed wooden beams as well as stucco interior walls

To what extent does recycling decrease the carbon footprint

3665 words - 15 pages and an non- synthetic material derived from cellulose ,which when heated could be molded and wrought, and after cooling the substance sustain the shape it was primitively wrought into. As time advanced plastic had become more in demand and is now one of the most common materials of our time. In terms of quantity us humans are using twenty times more plastic today than fifty years ago. The recycling process of plastic begins at the recycling


1525 words - 7 pages . Hastelloy® W has low coefficient of thermal expansion, and is used as a wrought alloy for a limited number of ring type applications in older gas turbine engines. Hastelloy® X has incredible high temperature strength, up to 1204°C. One of its many advantages is the fact of being able to withstand reducing, neutral atmospheres and oxidation. These properties make Hastelloy® X recommended for industrial furnace applications. It can be forged and can be

The Causes of the Industrial Revolution

4892 words - 20 pages . Principle suppliers of high-quality iron goods were Sweden and Russia, with Russia being able to command increasingly high prices as Britain's need grew. To fuel the iron smelting process, people moved from wood to coal and coke. Production of pig iron, cast iron and wrought iron improved through the exchange of ideas (although this was by no means a fast process), with the most well-known name being Abraham Darby. The first Abraham Darby made great

The Application of Aluminium in Automobile Sector

2076 words - 8 pages resources will also be in consideration. Introduction:- The competition of material in the sector of automobile industries has been conventional comprehensive. Even since 1920s, Steel was the best suited material on the basis of its application for example application of steel in building construction and automobile also. The increase in requirement for amending the economy of fuel triggered by concerns regarding global warming as well as

Gustav Mahler

1054 words - 4 pages with an iron fist, helping create the image of conductor as dictator. This was not, however, the result of simple ego, but rather of Mahler's artistic honesty and desire. When members of the opera orchestra complained that one or another lazy practice was tradition, Mahler's favorite reply was that "[t]radition is laziness." Mahler believed that opera was the highest form of art, not mere entertainment. A classic example is when Mahler

Similar Essays

I Will Put It Later Essay

2355 words - 9 pages beautifully designed gates, fences, window lintels, and other decorative elements. Wrought iron also started to become the structural support of sky scrapers. When steel came to dominate the structural material unit, it replaced all of the rails and the bridge building industry. Taller buildings were achieved with greater spans, full skeletal framing was beginning to be used, soon the majority of constructions wrapped themselves around steel

The Effects Of Bacteria On The Rusting Process

1406 words - 6 pages , India. This solid shaft of wrought iron is about 7 ¼ m high by 40 cm in diameter. Corrosion to the pillar has been minimal although it has been exposed to the weather since its erection. (Bolgar) The pure metal is very reactive chemically and rapidly corrodes, especially in moist air or at elevated temperatures. Iron is a vital constituent of plant and animal life and appears in hemoglobin. Common iron is a mixture of four isotopes

Metal And Architecture Essay

1138 words - 5 pages structural material. Steel can be recycled many time without a loss of strength. Metals can also be used in handrails and railings. Some types of handrails and railings and where they are located are grab bars, safety handrails in bathroom and showers, staircases, walkers, Jacuzzi's, pools, decks, walkways, porches, patios, subways, etc.. Handrails can come in glass, cable, wrought iron, stainless steel, aluminum, plastic, wood or nylon. Safety

Here Is A Paper

836 words - 4 pages easily burn. To fix that problem, Sullivan needed a material that was sturdy yet not flammable to replace what had previously been a city based on wood. The Industrial Revolution achieved a solution for Sullivan’s dilemma. Steel, a substance created by infusing a small percent of carbon into iron, allowed for taller, sturdier buildings with lower cost in terms of affordable housing. Urbanization took hold of Chicago as well during the eighteen