Ww1 Notes Based On Yr12 N.S.W Syllabus.

2658 words - 11 pages

Nature of Trench WarfareTemporaryJust for the cold winter of 1914The G trenches were more sophisticated and officers lived in better conditions - the G saw the possibility of the trench system of fighting possibly becoming more permanentThe Trenches:*Were 4 feet deep with a built - up wall of sandbags to form a parapet at the front and a parado at the back. This added extra height, support for the trenches, and excess mud and dirt to be placed.*Along the sides of trenches there were holes known as dugouts, there were created to allow space for soldiers to lie down. Some had rooms lined with boards, bunks and electric lighting.*They had firing steps and elbow rests to ensure better shooting.*Duckboards allowed soldiers to stand out of the mud in the bottom of the trenches.*Towards no mans land, bared wire was stretched to slow down enemy attack. Unfortunately, this had to be taken down at nigh got their own attack, which eliminated the element of surprise.*Were constructed in a zigzag pattern called 'firebays' or 'traverses' 5m's apart so that if the enemy got in shrapnel would hit walls not people, bullets would hit walls not people as well.Life in the trenches*3 out of every 4 weeks was spent in rest or in the reserve trenchesDuring rest dug new trenches, filled sandbags, walked approximately 16km's a day, secured trench walls, collected their pay, washed thoroughly, prepared the nights meal, Helped transport ammunition.Discomforts*Fatigue: Early mornings - 'stand to' half an hour before daylight ad trench line activity such as maintenance in dangerous positions were carried out at night.*Much time watching and waiting in anxiety/boredom.*Sight, stench and sounds of the dead and wounded.*Sounds of bombs and shells*Same food everyday. Often cold. Fresh was that which had been baked within 8 days, army biscuits were so hard they had to be smashed with a hard object before being soaked and boiled. Food often did not arrive because of shortages, unreliability of rail etc. Hence, many soldiers starved, horseflesh was eaten.Disease and Injury*In total 9,500,000 died due to disease and injury. This was triggered by malnutrition, cold climate, lack of cleaning/washing facilities, contaminated water, the abundance of insects, the inability to keep dry, depression and lack of sleep.*Hunger Men often received less than half the allocated 4300 calories rationed per day. This was because it was stolen, lost or spoiled.Diseases*Trench fever - contagious, exhausting - occurred mainly in warmer regions*Scabbies - caused by an itch mite laying eggs under the skin*Shell shock - went insane dur to the climate and poor diet.*Dysentery - diarreah of blood*Typhus - caused by ticks*Frostbite, pneumonia, trench foot - fungal infection where feet swells to 2-3 times their normal size*Nephritis - disease of the immune system causing harm to brain, skin, kidneys and joints*21 million people were wounded*Constipation from poor diet*Lack of medical assistanceTotal War: a...

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