Xdjwvcu Essay

6446 words - 26 pages

Suryana Sumantri, Fakultas Psikologi Unpad Suharnomo, Fakultas Ekonomi Undip
Penelitian Budaya Nasional belum banyak dilakukan di Indonesia, khususnya mengenai Budaya Nasional Indonesia. Penelitian ini mengacu pada Budaya Nasional yang dikemukakan oleh Hofstede (1983). Budaya nasional memiliki empat dimensi, yaitu: power distance, individualism-collectivism, masculinity-femininityy, dan uncertainty avoidance. Hasil penelitian awal yang dilakukan Hofstede (1983:52), dilihat dari dimensi-dimensinya memiliki skor 78 untuk dimensi power distance, 14 untuk dimensi individualism-collectivism, 46 untuk dimensi masculinity-femininityy, dan 48 untuk dimensi uncertainty avoidance.
Populasi penelitian ini adalah perusahaan yang tercantum di Bursa Efek Indonesia 2007. Penelitian ini menggunakan data primer yang dikumpulkan melalui pengisian kuesioner dimana responden dihubungi melalui jasa pos berbayar (a reply- paid envelope). Jumlah sampel 108. Teknik analisis menggunakan Pedoman Value Survey Module yang dikembangkan oleh Hofstede yang dimodifikasi.
Fokus penelitian pada aspek actuating (menggerakkan), atau dalam kata lain pe- motivasi-an, dan kaitannya dengan aspek budaya nasional Indonesia. Kesimpulan:
1. Berdasarkan kerangka penghitungan skor budaya nasional : dimensi power distance adalah 66, dimensi individualism adalah 27, dimensi masculinity adalah 74 dan dimensi unvcertainty avoidance adalah 30
2. Budaya nasional Indonesia termasuk dalam kategori jarak kekuasaan yang tinggi (high power distance), Oleh karena itu, untuk memotivasi karyawan pemimpin harus bertindak aktif dan bersifat kebapakan (paternalistik) dan pengasuh (nurturant) yang memperhatikan anak buahnya.
3. Budaya nasional Indonesia termasuk kolektif (individualism rendah), sehingga kebutuhan yang dianggap penting oleh karywan adalah dapat menjalin hubungan yang dekat dengan keluarga dan teman kerja.
4. Dimensi budaya nasional Indonesia termasuk pada budaya yang maskulin., dengan lingkungan budaya masculinity tinggi karyawan lebih cenderung termotivasi bekerja karena alasan penghasilan, pengakuan, kemajuan dan tantangan dalam pekerjaan.
5. Budaya nasional Indonesia termasuk pada budaya dengan penghindaran ketidak pastian yang rendah. Secara teoritik uncertainty avoidance rendah ditandai dengan karyawan yang menyukai untuk mengambil resiko, lebih suka pekerjaaan yang menantang dan termotivasi untuk mengejar karir yang lebih tinggi.
Kata Kunci : Budaya Nasional, dimensi budaya (power distance, individualism- collectivism, masculinity-femininityy, dan uncertainty avoidance). pemotivasian

2 Latar Belakang
Budaya Nasional Indonesia pada dasarnya masih memerlukan pengkajian yang
mendalam dan memerlukan penelitian seperti apakah budaya nasional indonesia
tersebut. Hasil penelitian yang dilakukan Hofstede (1983:52), dilihat dari dimensi-
dimensinya memiliki skor 78 untuk dimensi...

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