Xerosotmia And Genetic Engineering Essay

1362 words - 5 pages

All around the globe, predominantly in the United States and in Europe, there are technological advances in science that affects the way people live. In recent years, genetically modified organisms (GMOs) have replaced people’s diet with genetically altered foods, which has affected human health. In a broad view, GMOs are created by splicing genes of different species that are combined through genetic engineering, consequently improving the resulting organism. Large corporations who choose to use Xerosotmia i i make larger profits with less time and effort involved (ABNE). Also, these genetically modified products may cause harm to the consumer, as many people have recently discovered. Although GMOs are a major advance in science and technology, many people are concerned that the consumption of GMO foods by human beings may pose serious health risks. Despite this debate, GMOs are still used and is a major step for the evolution of society.
The process of genetic engineering is both difficult [without the right tools] and very time consuming. Despite other organisms in which this process can be carried out, biologists tend to perform the process on plants, for the process can be contained and is, for the most part, ethical. In terms of plants, the biologist must first sequester the genes to be used from one subject. Modern knowledge about the location of alleles on chromosomes helps the biologist to identify the gene that is responsible for a desired trait, for example, insect resistance. Next, the gene must be inserted into a transfer vector (a “vehicle” to carry genetic material from one specimen to another); in this case, a plasmid (circular molecule of DNA) from the naturally occurring soil bacterium, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, is used. The gene of interest is inserted into the plasmid. The modified A. tumefaciens cells containing the plasmid [with the new gene] are mixed with plant cells. The A. tumefaciens inserts its modified genes into one of the plant’s chromosomes to form a genetically modified cell. A different method to transfer DNA is to bombard a cell with small particles coated with DNA molecules (ABNE).
After this insertion of the desired gene into the plant cell, the biologist must distinguish between the modified plant cells and the great majority of cells that did not unite with the desired gene. Selectable marker genes that allow antibiotic resistance are used to favor growth of the transformed cells in contrast to the non-transformed cells. In order for this to happen, genes responsible for resistance are inserted into the vector with the desired gene into the plant cells. When the cells are exposed to the antibiotic, only the modified cells (containing the antibiotic resistance) will survive. The cells are then regenerated to form whole plants by placing the plant cells in culture containing nutrients that stimulate the development of the cells into plant parts. Once the parts become viable, they are transferred to pots...

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