Limb deficiencies are a reality in everyday life, and there are children all over the world dealing with such limitations. A limb deficiency entails the lack of an arm or a leg, or multiple.
There are both congenital limb deficiencies and acquired limb deficiencies (Bryant & Pandian, 2001). Congenital limb deficiencies are present at birth and can be the complete absence of a limb, partial formation of a limb, or deformed growth (Smith, 2006). Douglas Smith (2006) estimated that approximately 65% of these birth defects are due to unknown causes. Congenital limb deficiencies affect an estimated 1,500 of every 4,500 births per year (Smith, 2006). This category of limb deficiency outnumbers amputation, or acquired limb deficiency, with a ratio of 2:1 (Bryant & Pandian, 2001).
Acquired limb deficiencies are most commonly caused by trauma, while approximately 25% are due to disease and infections (Bryant & Pandian, 2001; Smith, 2006). The most common causation of limb deficiency in children is power tools and machines, with the most frequent trauma for children under 10 being injury by power lawnmower (Bryant & Pandian, 2001). 60% of acquired limb deficiencies involved the lower limb(s) (Bryant & Pandian, 2001). According to Smith (2006), boys endure these traumas much more frequently than girls, with a 70% to 30% comparison. Most acquired childhood amputations occur to children under the age of 5, but it is after the trauma that the effects of limb deficiency become reality.
Children’s ability and willingness to take part in recreation and how they use their leisure time can be greatly affected by their lack of limb(s). Unfortunately, there are a multitude of obstacles that can hinder a child with a limb deficiency in the pursuit of experiencing positive leisure with other children.
There is an obvious physical barrier as a lot of these children are unable to partake in certain physical activities alike typical children. Impaired mobility in children with lower limb deficiency hinders their ability to efficiently move around, which is often a condition in recreational activities for children, such as sports and simply playing with other children (Epps, A. & Ault, J., 2011). Such setbacks often result in participant restriction in sports (Gallagher, O’Donovan, Doyle, & Desmond, 2011). This can be recognized specifically when certain limbs are required to kick or throw a ball and other such motions (Gallagher et al., 2011). Children with upper limb deficiency may struggle in other recreational activities as well, such as painting, writing or playing a musical instrument. Fernhall (2002) reported that these children partake in less physical activity than do typical children.
Children are especially susceptible to hindrances at school with other able-bodied children. Educators must consider these specific children when planning their class activities and set up their classrooms accordingly to each...