Yemen as a Failed State.
For a long period Yemen was considered as a fragile state, but as the time passes it is often being labeled as a failing state. Lack of government institutions to obtain their duties, such as providing basic public services, protecting the borders and providing security for its people are just some of the indicators that no doubt only bringing state to its failure. Yemen to be called as failing state is common and almost everybody would agree, except very few, who consider “Failing State” as a term which was adopted by the US as a tool for intervention into foreign countries. It doesn’t really matter to which extent one can agree on this term, but important is what is really happening inside Yemen. The purpose of the following paper is to bring together in one place major problems and concerns, which State of Yemen and its population facing and main threats to the government. By reading this paper the reader should decide himself, to which extend he agrees or disagrees about the “Failing State” term to be US adopted tool. One has to bear in mind, that no wonder what political concerns other countries have in mind towards Yemen, all it matters in the end of the day is what the local population is going through.
What is Failed State?
According to the Fund for Peace, the state that lost a physical control of its territory or monopoly on the legitimate use of force, has erosion of legitimate authority in order to make collective decisions and inability to provide basic public services can be called a Failed State.
Failed State Index is the most popular way of indicating to which extend the states are strong, weak or failing. The Failed State Index was established by the Fund for Peace and “Foreign Policy” magazine in 2005. The mentioned index contains of certain indicators, which define failed state. There are 4 types of indicator, such as: social, economic, political and military. To Social and Economic indicators can be referred:
- Demographic Pressures (i.e. population growth, food and water scarcity, etc);
- Refugees and IDPs (internally displaced persons) (i.e. displacement, IDP camps, etc);
- Uneven Economic Development (i.e. urban-rural service distribution, access to improved services, etc);
- Group Grievance (i.e. discrimination, powerlessness, etc);
- Human Flight and Brain Drain (i.e. emigration of educated people, etc);
- Poverty and Economic Decline (i.e. unemployment, economic deficit, etc);
Political and Military indicators include:
- State Legitimacy (i.e. corruption, political struggle, etc);
- Public Services (i.e. water and sanitation, roads, etc);
- Human Rights and Rule of Law (i.e. political freedom, torture, etc);
- Security Apparatus (i.e. internal conflicts, rebel activities, etc);
- Factionalized Elites (i.e. power struggle, defectors, etc);
- External Intervention (i.e. foreign military intervention, foreign assistance, etc);
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